EDEXCEL GCSE 9-1 COMBINED SCIENCE PHYSICS PAPER 1 PART 3

  • Created by: jordanb-h
  • Created on: 26-04-18 14:35
State a renewable energy resource
Solar cells
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State a renewable energy resource
Bio-fuels
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State a renewable energy resource
Hydroelectricity
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State a renewable energy resource
Wind turbines
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State a renewable energy resource
Tidal power
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How do solar cells work?
convert solar energy directly to electricity
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What are Bio-fuels?
are animal or plant matter used to produce thermal energy, electrical energy and used to power cars
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How does hydroelectricity generate electricity?
generates electricity from water behind a dam flowing down a pipe and turning a turbine to generate electricity
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How does tidal power generate electricity?
uses the rise and fall of the tide or tidal currents to generate electricity
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State what nuclear fuels are used for
to generate electricity
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State what nuclear fuels are used as
energy sources in spacecraft
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What are fossil fuels?
coal,oil and natural gas
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State what fossil fuels are used for
to generate electricity
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State what fossil fuels are used for
to power transport
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State what fossil fuels are used for
to heat homes and for cooking
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State a reason why the use of energy resources has changed over the years
the worlds population: in the past 200 years the population of the world has risen from 1 billion to 7 billion people
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State a reason why the use of energy resources has changed over the years
the development of technology: vehicles and other devices have increased in number and these
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State a reason why the use of energy resources has changed over the years
Electrical energy: power stations require fuels in order to generate electricity
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Non-renewable energy resources are what?
a finite reserve so they will run out and not be replaced
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What will greater use of fossil fuels lead to?
more carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
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What is gravitational potential energy?
is the energy possessed by a body due to its height above the Earth
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State what the value of the gravitational potential energy stored depends on
the mass of the body
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State what the value of the gravitational potential energy stored depends on
the gravitational field strength
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State what the value of the gravitational potential energy stored depends on
the height the body is raised
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How do you calculate the change in gravitational potential energy?
change in gravitational potential energy= mass x gravitational field strength x change in vertical height
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What is the gravitational field strength on Earth?
10 N/kg
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Where is kinetic energy stored ?
in moving objects
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How do you calculate kinetic energy?
kinetic energy= 0.5 x mass x(speed)^2
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What is kinetic energy directly proportional to?
the mass of the doubling object: doubling the mass doubles the kinetic energy of the moving object
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State how waves can be described by
their frequency- the number of waves passing a point each second, measured in hertz
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State how waves can be described by
their speed- measured in metres per second
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State how waves can be described by
their wavelength and amplitude
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State how waves can be described by
their period- the time taken for one wavelength to pass a point
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How do you calculate a waves period?
period= 1/frequency
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What are sound waves and seismic P waves?
longitudinal waves
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What direction do particles in a longitudinal wave move?
the same direction as the wave
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Waves on a water surface, electromagnetic waves and seismic S waves are all what?
transverse waves
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Where do particles in a transverse wave move?
across the direction the wave is travelling
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How do you calculate wave speed? (metres per second)
wave speed= frequency x wavelength
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How do you calculate wave speed? (metres per second)
wave speed= distance / time
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State one equation you can use to calculate the speed of sound in air
speed= distance/time
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State one equation you can use to calculate the speed of sound in air
wavespeed= frequency x wavelength
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Whenever a sound wave, light wave or water wave reaches the boundary between two materials, the wave can be what?
refracted
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What is Refraction?
is the change in the direction of a light ray that happens when it travels from one transparent material into another
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Sound waves travel faster in warmer air than in cooler air, as what?
the molecules move faster in warmer air
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Water waves change direction and bend towards the normal when they move from what?
deep water to shallow water
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Light waves bend towards the normal when?
they move from air into glass
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When do light waves bend away from the normal?
when they move from glass back into air
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When light, sound or water waves move from one material into another their what does not change if they are moving along the normal?
direction
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What are all part of the electromagnetic spectrum?
infrared radiation, visible light and ultraviolet radiation
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All electromagnetic waves are what?
transverse waves (the electromagnetic vibrations are at right angles to the direction the wave is travelling)
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All electromagnetic waves travel at what?
the same speed
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All electromagnetic waves transfer energy to what?
the observer
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As the frequency of the radiation increases, the wavelength ?
decreases
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The amount of energy that is transferred by an electromagnetic wave is dependent on what?
its wavelength or frequency
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The highest frequencies (shortest wavelengths) are what?
the most energetic and the most dangerous waves
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State a danger of gamma-rays and x-rays
can cause mutations to the DNA in cells in the body- this may kill the cells or cause cancer
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State a danger of ultraviolet
UV in sunlight can damage skin cells causing sunburn. Over time, exposure to UV can cause skin cancer. UV can also damage the eyes leading to eye conditions
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State a danger of infrared
Infrared radiation transfers thermal energy. Too much infrared radiation can cause skin burns
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State a danger of microwaves
Microwaves heat water- so they heat the water inside our bodies. Heating cells can damage or kill them
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State a use of gamma-rays
to sterilise food and medical equipment
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State a use of gamma-rays
in scanners to detect cancer
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State a use of gamma-rays
to treat cancer
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State a use of x-rays
to look inside objects,including medical x-rays to look inside bodies
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State a use of x-rays
in airport security scanners, to see what people have in their luggage
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State a use of ultraviolet
to detect security marks made by using special pens
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State a use of ultraviolet
inside fluorescent lamps
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State a use of ultraviolet
to detect forged banknotes (real banknotes have markings that glow in UV light)
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State a use of ultraviolet
to disinfect water
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State a use of visible light
allows us to see, lights up rooms and streets, buildings and roads (illumination)
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State a use of visible light
photography
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State a use of infrared
in cooking (by grills and toasters)
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State a use of infrared
to make thermal images used by police and rescue services
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State a use of infrared
in short-range communications
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State a use of infrared
in remote controls for TVs and other appliances, where the signal only has to travel short distances
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State a use of infrared
to send information along optical fibres
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State a use of infrared
in security systems
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State a use of microwaves
in mobile phones, and to communicate by satellite transmissions
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State a use of microwaves
for cooking (in microwave ovens)
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State a use for radio waves
broadcasting radio and TV programmes
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State a use for radio waves
communicating with ships, aeroplanes and satellites
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Radiation is absorbed or emitted when electrons jump between what?
energy levels
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Electrons can only exist in atoms at what?
certain, well-defined energy levels
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These energy levels depend on what?
the atom, and the electrons inside the atom can move between the shells or leave the atom completely
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Electromagnetic radiation is emitted or absorbed by what?
atoms based on whether energy is given out or taken in
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Electrons move up energy levels when they absorb energy and they fall down to what?
lower energy levels when they emit energy
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Electrons move from a lower energy level to a higher energy level when the correct amount of energy is what?
absorbed
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Electromagnetic radiation is emitted when electrons fall down from a higher to a what?
lower energy level
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The electromagnetic radiation can have what?
a wide frequency range, from infrared through to ultraviolet and beyond
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Energy is also emitted from where?
the nuclei of unstable atoms
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Protons and neutrons also occupy energy levels in the nucleus, in the same way that electrons do in what?
the atom
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When energy changes occur in the nucleus, high-energy gamma-rays are what?
emitted
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Card 2

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State a renewable energy resource

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Bio-fuels

Card 3

Front

State a renewable energy resource

Back

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Card 4

Front

State a renewable energy resource

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

State a renewable energy resource

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