Keeping healthy

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carbs, proteins and fats
release energy to build and make new cells
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If you dont have a balanced diet then you will end up?
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What effects how much energy you need?
gender, exercise, pregnancy, age, muscle girth
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metabolic rate is...;
the rate of chemical reactions in your cells
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what effects your metabolic rate
the proportion of muscle to fat in your body, the amount of exercise you do, inherited genetic factors
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a form of malnourishment by taking in more energy than you use. This can lead to arthritis, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease.
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losing mass
you lose mass by taking in less energy than you use in your daily life
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this helps reduce weight and maintain health
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Deficiency diseases
These are due to a lack of mineral ions and are common in those who don't have enough food, they can also occur if you don't have a balanced diet.
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inherited factors
Inherited factors affect your health including metabolic rate and cholesterol level.
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Cholesterol uses
For your cell membranes and to make vital hormones
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Two cholesterol types
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High levels of cholesterol can lead to...
increased risk of heart disease. 1 in 500 people inherit high cholesterol levels.
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People who regularly exercise
are less likely to be overweight, increase metabolic rat as they have more muscle tissue, less likely for arthritis, diabetes and high blood pressure, lowers harmful cholesterol
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Infectious disease
found all over the world, cause by microorganisms entering and attacking the body.
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Single cell living orgasms, they split in two and produce toxins to affect your body and directly affect your cells
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Smaller than bacteria and take over the cell to reproduce, damaging and destroying cells.
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Catching an infectious disease
you can catch an infectious disease by picking up a pathogen from someone with an infectious disease
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What was Ignas Semmelweis' discovery
He discovered that less patients would die if the doctors washed their hands as infectious agents could be carried
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Why wasn't Semmelweis' ideas accepted
Doctors thought it was God's punishment to women, nobody had ever seen bacteria or viruses so it was hard to believe something invisible was passed from person to person. Doctors didn't like the idea they were being told their actions were killing.
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Droplet infection
When you cough sneeze or talk and expel tiny droplets of pathogens which other people breathe in.
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Direct contact
Direct contact of the skin e.g. genital herpes. Contaminated food or drink (large amounts of microorganisms taken into your gut), through a break in your skin
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White blood cells
Ingest microorganisms, produce antibodies which connect to the antigens, produce antitoxins
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Preventing microbes getting into your body
Skin acts as a barrier stopping viruses reaching the tissues underneath, scabbing stops pathogens getting through, mucus covers lining of lungs and traps pathogens it is then swallowed by gut+destroyed like intake from the mouth, by stomach acid
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they cure bacterial diseases by killing the bacteria in your body without damaging your cells. They don't have a effect on viruses as its difficult to develop a drug that kills the virus without harming the cells at the same time.
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Alexander Fleming
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Uncontaminated microorganisms
these can be cultured at 25C for a few days using sterile agar and petri dishes, you sterilise the inoculating loop and seal the lid of the petri dish to prevent unwanted microorganism
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why are uncontaminated cultures needed?
They are needed so we can investigate the effect of chemicals such as disinfectants and antibodies or microorganismas
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across several countries
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in one country
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Antibiotic resistant bacteria, contributes to 1000 deaths in UK hospitals per year
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Antibiotic resistance
This has occurred through natural selection and mutations, to prevent this we should not overuse antibiotics
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Antibodies destroy pathogens. Next time your body will respond rapidly to future infections by the same pathogen by producing the correct antibody. You become immune to the disease
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You can be immunised against a disease by introducing a small amount of dead or inactive pathogen into your body. You can use these against bacterial and viral pathogens.
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these protect individuals and society from effects of a disease
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Card 2




If you dont have a balanced diet then you will end up?

Card 3


gender, exercise, pregnancy, age, muscle girth


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Card 4


the rate of chemical reactions in your cells


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Card 5


the proportion of muscle to fat in your body, the amount of exercise you do, inherited genetic factors


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