Developmental approach

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Samuel & Bryant, Focus?
Conservation
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Background?
Piaget developed conservation tasks.
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Aim?
test whether methodology used in Piaget's conservation experiments was reason why children under 8yrs made errors, rather than true lack of understanding of conservation.
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Research method?
Lab experiment & cross-sectional snapshot
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IV?
Age of child (5,6,7,8), task method (standard/1 judge/fixed array), materials used (beaker, counters, plasticine)
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DV?
whether or not child got answers to post-transformation Q correct.
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Experimental design?
Independent groups design
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Sample?
252 school children, Crediton, Devon 5-8 1/2 yrs, 4 groups of 63 children, 21 in each condition.
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Findings?
5 1/4 yrs - 8.5 errors, 8 1/4 yrs - 1.7 errors
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Upheld ethics?
Confidentiality, physical harm
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Broken?
Consent, deception, withdraw, debrief, mental harm (frustration)
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High EV?
School tasks, adults testing children
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Low EV?
Stranger asking Q, lab environment
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x2 problems?
Low EV - lab environment, Sample all from Devon
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Bandura & Ross, Focus?
Agression
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Background?
Bandura developed concept of Social Learning Theory based on behaviourist principles - claims people can learn through observation & imitate these observed behaviour.
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Aim?
To see whether children would imitate aggressive behaviour when given opportunity, even if saw behaviour in a different envir & original model performing agg act was no longer present.
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Research method?
Lap exp, Snapshot
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Sample?
36 boys, 36 girls, 37-69 months, Stanford Uni Nursery, 1m & 1f role model.
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IVs?
Behaviour of model, gender of role model, gender of child.
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Findings?
agg male model, boy physical acts - 25.8, non agg - 1.5, control - 2.0
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qualitative findings?
"who is that lady? That's not the way for a lady to behave" "Al's a good socker, he beat up Bobo! I want to sock like AL"
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Conclusion?
Children can learn from imitation, without child being reinforced, modelling is a form of observational learning.
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Ethics upheld?
Confidentiality
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Broken?
Consent (parents), withdraw, harm (made agg.), debrief, deception.
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High EV?
familiar nursery setting
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Low EV?
room with stranger kicking Bobo doll
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x2 problems?
small sample, Low EV
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Freud, focus?
phobias
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Aim?
To document the development of a horse phobia in Little Hans
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Background?
Psychodynamic perspective argues that behaviours are due to unconscious drives, desire & motivations (5 stages)
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Research method?
Longitudinal case study
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Sample?
Little Hans
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Findings?
Phobia of horse blinkers & biting of fingers - fathers spectacles & castration
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Conclusions?
Support for Oedipus Complex - jealous of father, castration anxiety.
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Upheld ethics?
Consent, deception, harm, withdraw, debrief, confidentiality.
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Broken?
Mental harm - talking about fears
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x2 problems?
small sample, father biased
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Section C main assumption?
There are clearly identifiable systematic changes that occur in an individuals behaviour from conception to death.
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Implication?
We must study people of all ages as we cannot assume that people will behave in the same way at different stages of development.
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Similarity?
Length of time, Freud - Longitudinal, Bandura - snapshot.
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x2 strengths of approach?
Offers an explanation of why individuals of differing ages demonstrate different intellectual abilities, social skills & emotional responses. It has the potential to be extremely useful by having an understanding of how children learn.
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x1 weaknesses of approach?
Most studies involve working with children which means special care must be taken regarding ethics in particular.
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2nd weakness of approach?
Most tasks and data collected will be limited as children are unable to fully express what they are thinking and feeling, especially in written format.
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Background?

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Piaget developed conservation tasks.

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Aim?

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Research method?

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IV?

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