development

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what can effect a countrys development on the continuum?
economic, demographic, social, political, cultural
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GDP
total value of all good+services produced, in a year, expressed as an amount per head of pop
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GNP
total value of good+services, in a year, plus all net income earned by that country+pop from overseas sources
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developed countries
most highly developed countries whose populations enjoy high living standards
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developing countries
countries at lower stages of development
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LDC
countries with very low living standards, low l/e, high i/m and low levels of education
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NICs
countries that have begun to develop through industrialisation in the last 40yrs.
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RICs
countries that have just started this process
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centrally planned economies
communist countries still exist, e.g NORTH KOREA
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oil-rich countries
high GNP per head but concentrated at the apex of society, saudia arabia
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what % of pop live in areas with a high GNP/per capita?
15%
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what % live in areas with a low GNP/per capita?
56%
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when was the G8 summit?
2005, proposed to cancel 40 billion from the poorest countries
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PPP
purchasing power parity
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what is PPP?
this is the spending power within the individual country and reflects the cost of living
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when was HDI created?
1990
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what does it use?
life expectancy at birth, education enrolment ratio and GNI per capita PPP$
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what is the highest and lowest?
1.000=highest. 0.000=lowest
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how has it been improved?
disaggregation which treats each group as if it was a separate country
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when was the IHDI introduced?
2010. this is adjusted for the inequalities in the distribution of achievements in each of the 3 factors
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in 2012, IHDI calculated for?
132 counteries, US suffers a loss of 12% when its HDI value is adjusted for the inequalities
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when was HPI devised?
1997
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what are the dimensions?
% pop not expected to live past 40, adult literacy rate, % access to safe drinking water, children under 5 underweight & %without access to basic health
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bangladesh HDI
0.515
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Botswana HDI and GDP
HDI=0.634 and GDP 26.26 GDP/per capita PPP$
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who is top of HDI?
Norway with 0.943
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how many places does the US drop when IHDI is considered?
13
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when was Ghana independent from Britain?
1947
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what happened before independence?
it was the largest cocoa exporter
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what 3 things changed after independence?
commodity traders, overseas tariffs and WTO
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commodity traders
overseas companies buy in future markets for the best prices, if the price is too high, they buy elsewhere=forces prices down
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overseas tariffs
EU sets tariffs higher for processed cocoa than raw beans. ghana would gain more by turning beans into chocolate but EU forces them to export raw
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WTO
ghana joined in 1995, WTO stated Ghanaan farmers no longer can be subsidised,
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another example of core and periphery theory
Guatemala's cotton
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how much of guatemalas cotton was exported in 1990s?
75%
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what is the fact?
if they process the raw cotton internally rather than exporting raw, they could earn more
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what % of land devoted to cotton would have been increased to produce the same income?
1%
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why hasnt this happened?
trade agreements prevent this, competition from other suppliers killed off its production by 2005
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what is dependency theory
the development of the core countries came at the expense of the peripheral ones
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which two ways did the rich countries continue their control over poorer periph?
economic modernisation and population modernisation
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what theory did Rostow produce?
modernisation theory which aimed at promoting the economic devel & reduce poverty
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what did this state?
aids, loans and investment can prevent countries turning to communism
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when did India introduce green revolution modern farming technqiues?
1940s-1970s
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5 stages of Rostow's model
traditional society, preconditions for take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, age of high mass consum
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what is in "take-off"?
society/economy transformed, 10% national wealth reinvested in economy, key manuf systems develop
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what year did HICs provide tech help to LICs?
1960s through death control policies and green-revolution
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what was a watershed for global trade?
Uruguay round of trade negotiations 1986-94
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why?
large package of measures agreed, trade freed up, volume of world trade rose by 50%
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how many countries part of free trade negotiations in 1948? 60yr later?
23 contracting parties, now there is 153 member states of the WTO
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how much did trade rise between 1948-2008
rose to 25% of world GDP
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how much have sea transport unit costs fallen?
fallen by 70% whilst air freight fallen 3-4% year to year
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how much will global emissions rise by as a result?
70% by 2020
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what is UK internet usage? what is Niger's?
UK= 82.5% and Niger has 0.7%
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how many TNCs in 1969? how many today?
1969= 7,000. Today=82,000
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what % of world exports they responsible for?
33%
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how much has the EU expanded?
since 2004, expanded from 15-27 member states
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Example of EU benefit
UK since 1973 has had access to cheaper wine from france, free from tariff
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negative tariffs externally
b4 1973, britain bought agri products from N.Z, upon joining EU, now tax agri from outside the bloc, UK switch to EU product
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who pursued a free-market?
Raegen and Thatcher in 1980s
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when was GATT established?
1947
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what % of manuactring was in industrialised economies in 1954?
95% but now GLOBAL SHIFT
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GDP

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total value of all good+services produced, in a year, expressed as an amount per head of pop

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GNP

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Card 4

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developed countries

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developing countries

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