Definitions

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  • Created by: tialou
  • Created on: 26-02-16 21:36
Activation energy
The minimum amount of kinetic energy paticles require in order to react when they collide.
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Avagadro constant
The number of particles in one mole of a substance
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Bond enthalpy
The energy required to break a bond between two atoms
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Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of reaction by creating an alternative pathwaty for a reaction, lowering the Activation energy required
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Chain isomer
An organic molecule that has the same atoms and functional group as other molecules but a different skeletal formula
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Covalent bond
A shared pair of electrons
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Cracking
Breaking long chained alkanes into smaller hydrocarbons
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Dative covalent bond (Co-ordinate bond)
A bond formed when one atom donates a pair of electons
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Dipole
A difference in charge between two atoms, resulting in a shift in electron density.
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E-isomer
An isomer of an alkene with the two highest priority groups on opposite sides
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Electronegativity
The ability of an atom to attract electrons towards itself in a covalent bond
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Empiricle formula
A formula that gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound
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Endothermic reaction
A reaction that absorbs energy
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Enthalpy change
Energy transfered in a reaction at constant pressure
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Exothermix reaction
A reaction that gives out energy
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First ionisation energy
The amount of energy required to remove one electron from one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of +1 gaseous ions
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Fractional distillation
A method of separating crude oil fractions using their boiling points
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Free radical
A paricle with an unpaired electron
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Functional group isomer
A molecule with the same molecular formula but has atoms arranges into different fuctional groups
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Homologous series
Organic comounds with the same general formula and similar properties
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Ionic bond
An electrostatic attraction between positive and negative ion in a lattice
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Mean bond enthalpy
An average value for the bond enthalpy of a particular bond in a range of compouns its found in
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Nucleophile
An electron pair donor
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Oxidation
Loss of electrons
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Oxidising agent
A substance that accepts electrons and is reduced
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Polar bond
A covelent bond where the difference in elecronegativity caused a shift in electron density
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Polar molecule
Molecule containing polar bonds that are arranged so that dipoles dont cancel each other out
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Position isomer
Molecule with the same skeletal and molecular formula but the functional group is attatched to a different carbon
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Reduction
Gain of electrons
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Refluxing
Heating a reaction without losing volatile sovents, reactants or products. Vapourised compounds cool and drip back into the reaction mixture.
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Stereoisomer
Molecules with the same structural formula but its atoms are arranged differently in space.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The number of particles in one mole of a substance

Back

Avagadro constant

Card 3

Front

The energy required to break a bond between two atoms

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A substance that increases the rate of reaction by creating an alternative pathwaty for a reaction, lowering the Activation energy required

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

An organic molecule that has the same atoms and functional group as other molecules but a different skeletal formula

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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