Civil War

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  • Created by: dilan_o
  • Created on: 05-05-18 12:40
Who had the advantage at the start of the war, 1642-1643?
Charles – controlled much of the country and had the support of most of the gentry and nobility, as well as his nephews Prince Rupert and Maurice of Nassau
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What was the first battle of the war, won by the Royalists, and when was it?
The Battle of Edgehill, October 1642.
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What did Pym raise in 1643?
An excise tax in parliamentary areas to maintain the army.
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What did Pym prevent in 1643?
The 'peace party' negotiating with Charles, and probably an unsatisfactory peace for Parliament.
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What did Pym sign before his death, and why was this significant?
A Solemn League and Covenant with the Scottish forces, who would prove instrumental in the parliamentary victory at Marston Moor, in July 1644
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Who led the ‘New Model’ army, and which notable commander supported him
Sir Thomas Fairfax, Oliver Cromwell.
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When was the first major success of the New Model Army?
The Battle of Naseby, June 1645
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When did Charles surrender to the Scots?
April 1646.
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What did the Scots want from Charles in their settlement proposal?
Security for the Presbyterian Church, English parliament had offered them a disappointing settlement, but Charles delayed and they handed him over to the English in Feb. 1647.
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What were the three key terms of the Newcastle Propositions of July 1646?
Parliament would nominate the key officers of state. Parliament would control the militia for 20 yrs. Bishops would be abolished and a Presbyterian Church would be created for experimental 3 yrs
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Who were the Agitators, and what did they want?
Levellers from within the NMA, who wanted religious toleration and pay for their work.
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Who wrote the Representation of the Army, and what did it advocate?
Henry Ireton, Cromwell's son-in-law. Demanded the expulsion of 11 Presbyterian MPs, and reasonable religious toleration, as well as fresh elections with a wider electorate.
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What did the Heads of Proposals suggest? (4)
Biennial instead of Triennial parliament. Parliament to nominate key officers of state for 10 yrs. Parliament would control militia for 10 yrs. Continued use of Bishops in Church but a restriction to their coercive powers.
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At what event did Colonel Thomas Rainsborough speak for the radical Levellers in the army?
The Putney Debates, 1647.
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What ended the Putney Debate discussions?
Charles escaped from Hampton Court.
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What did Charles sign, in captivity on the Isle of Wight when he was recaptured?
A secret engagement with the Scots, promising to establish a Presbyterians Church in England for 3 years in return for their military assistance.
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What happened in April 1648?
The Scots entered England, prompting a brief second CW, but they were defeated easily by Cromwell's army in August.
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Who demanded that Charles be brought to justice?
Henry Ireton
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What was Cromwell's dilemma?
He couldn't decide what to do about Charles, but eventually decided that by deliberately renewing the war he had betrayed his people in the eyes of God.
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What did the Commons want to do when Charles considered the 4 new bills of demands sent to him?
Wanted to reopen negotiations.
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How did Ireton ensure Charles faced justice?
Surrounded the Commons w. soldiers, excluded 186 sympathetic MPs, arrested 45 actively involved in promoting further discussions. ='Rump' House of 240 were actively involved in trial+execution of Charles. High Court of Justice created to try Charles.
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When was Charles I executed?
30 January 1649.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the first battle of the war, won by the Royalists, and when was it?

Back

The Battle of Edgehill, October 1642.

Card 3

Front

What did Pym raise in 1643?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Pym prevent in 1643?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Pym sign before his death, and why was this significant?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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