Chemistry Unit 1

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  • Created by: jenni2906
  • Created on: 30-05-15 11:46
What is phytomining?
Plants grown in copper soil, plants harvested, dried and burned in a furnace, copper collected from the ash.
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How is the top of the reactivity series extracted?
Electrolysis.
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How is the bottom of the reactivity series extracted?
Reduction using carbon.
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What is electrolysis?
Liquid conducts electricity = electrolyte. Electrolyte has free ions. Electrons taken away by positive anode and given away by the negative cathode. As ions gain or lose electrons, they become atoms or molecules and are released.
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What is bioleaching?
Bacteria separates copper from sulfide, bacteria get energy from copepr and sulfur, separating copper from the ore. Leachate contains copper.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of limestone?
Widely avaliable, cheap, hard-wearing, quarrying is noisy, ruins landscape and causes pollution.
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What is the limestone cycle?
CaCO3 - heat added - CaO CO2 - water added - Ca(OH)2 - more water added - CA(OH)2
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What are some uses for limestone?
Houses, concrete, roads, mortar, toothpaste, cement.
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What is cement?
Heated powdered clay.
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What is mortar?
Cement, sand and water.
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What is concrete?
Cement, sand, water and gravel.
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What do alkenes do?
Decolourise bromine water - orange to colourless.
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What is fractional distillation?
Crude oil heated to 350 degrees, compounds in oil evaporate, liquisa flow to bottom of column and hot vapour rise, vapours cool as they rise, when a fraction cools to its boiling point, the fraction condenses. Condensed fraction is separated & flows.
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What is the formula of alkanes?
CnH2n+2
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What is the formula of alkenes?
CnH2n.
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What does a double bond in crude oil mean?
Unsaturated.
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What is cracking and what are the conditions?
Breaking up long-chain hydrocarbons, aluminium oxide 400-700 degrees.
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Advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen gas as alternative fuel?
Very clean but not widely avaliable.
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How is ethanol used as an alternative fuel and what are the advantages and disadvantages of using it?
Plant material fermented and mixed with petrol. Biofuel. It's carbon neutral and not widely avaliable.
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What is biodiesel?
A biofuel, vegetable oil, can be used in a diesel engine but is expensive. Carbon neutral.
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How is ethanol made?
Ethene is hydrated with steam with a catalyst. It's cheap and there is not much wasted, non-renewable and expensive.
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What is fermentation?
Sugar = carbon dioxide and ethanol. Lower temperature than hydration, renewable resources. Cheap. Not very concentrated, must be distilled and purified.
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What is polymerisation?
Small alkene molecules join in long chains to make polymers.
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What are emulsions?
Thicker than oil or water. Emulsifier has hydrophillic head and hydrophobic tail.
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What are unsaturated oils?
Monounsaturated = one double bond. Polyunsaturated = more than one double bond. Unsaturated have double bonds and decolourise bromine water.
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What is hydrogenation?
Nickel catalyst at 60 degrees, keep longer, cheaper than butter, makes spreads.
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What do saturated oils cause?
Cholesterol, heart disease.
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Why can't earthquakes and volcanoes be predicted?
Plates move very suddenly. Volcano makes ground bulge before an eruption. Not all tremors mean the volcano will erupt.
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What did Miller and Urey do?
Theory - lightning struck - amino acids formed. Collected in primordial soup, amino acids formed organic matter, evolved to living organisms. 1950s Miller and URey proved theory wasn't quite right.
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How did the atmosphere evolve?
Volcanoes give out gases, green plants evolve and produce oxygen, ozone layer allows evolution of animals.
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What is polyethene?
Burns in air, produces water and carbon dioxide.
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How were the oceans formed?
Water vapour released by volcanic activity and condensed to form oceans.
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How are earthquakes caused?
Caused by sudden movement of tectonic plates which is caused by convection currents in mantle caused by radioactive processes.
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What did Wegener do?
Realised the continents all joined together, then drifted apart.
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Why do scientists not predict earthquakes?
Some earthquakes do little damage, can't be predicted where they will occur, many earthquakes are predicted by scientists each year and do not happen.
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What are mantle dynamics?
Convection currents in mantle caused by heat.
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Why does the amount of carbon dioxide change?
Dissolves in water, plants absord carbon dioxide.
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What is steam distillation?
Water boils, steam is produced, oils vapourised by steam, vapours condensed, water runs off leaving oils.
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What is locked up carbon dioxide?
CO2 from air/atmosphere formed rocks or fossil fuels.
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What is the CO2 test?
Limewater turns cloudy because CO2 is produced from burning methane and decomposing calcium carbonate.
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What is the disadvantage of sulphur?
Sulphur reacts with oxygen to produce sulphur dioxide which causes acid raid and erodes calcium carbonate.
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Advantages and disadvantages of polyethene bags?
Strong, burned to provide heat for buildings, production uses lots of energy and fuel, shortage of landfill space, biodegradable, production causes global warming.
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What is argon?
Inert and unreactive.
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What is titanium?
More expensive than iron, more materials so larger amounts of argon and energy needed, more stages in manufacture.
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What are alloys?
Too soft on it's own, cheaper, strong, resistant to corrosion.
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What is crude oil?
Non renewable, contains locked up CO2 which contributes to global warming, no loss of food crops, doesn't use land space.
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What is redution?
Iron extracted by heating a mixture of iron oxide and carbon in a blast furnace.
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Copper extraction?
Copper ore is running out and copper is expensive.
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What is sugar cane?
Carbon neutral, renewable, sustainable, growing is slow and unreliable, destroys habitats, provides employment.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How is the top of the reactivity series extracted?

Back

Electrolysis.

Card 3

Front

How is the bottom of the reactivity series extracted?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is electrolysis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is bioleaching?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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