Chemistry

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  • Created by: NicoleAD
  • Created on: 25-04-16 23:35
Define 'covalent bonding'
Covalent bonding is when two atoms share a pair of electrons, this allows them to gain full outer shells.
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Define 'ionic bonding'
Ionic bonding is when one of the atoms donates an electron to the other atom in order for them both to gain full outer shells.
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Define 'dative covalent bond'
In dative covalent bonds one of the atoms provides both of the shared electrons.
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State the behaviour of ionic compounds.
They can generally dissolve in water (due to it being polar), conducts electricity when its either molten or dissolved. They also have very high melting points due to strong electrostatic forces.
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Briefly explain properties of graphite.
1. hexagonal structure 2. forms three covalent bonds 3.can conduct electricity due to the delocalised electrons 4.insoluble in any solvent 5. high melting points.
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Briefly explain properties of diamond.
1.Tetrahedral structure 2. forms four covalent bond 3. cannot conduct electricity as there is no delocalised electrons 4.insoluble in any solvent 5. very high melting points.
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Describe hydrogen bonding.
Hydrogen bonding is the strongest type of intermolecular force, however it can only occur when when hydrogen is covalently bonded to nitrogen, oxygen or fluorine.
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Define 'metallic bonding'.
Closely packed positive ions which are surrounded by a sea of delocalised electrons, in a lattice structure.
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Define the term 'ductile'.
This means that some metals are able to be drawn into wires.
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Define the term 'malleable'.
This means that the metal ions can slide over each other when the metal is put under pressure, so therefore it can be bent and shaped.
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Why do metals have high melting points?.
This is due to the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the sea of delocalised electrons and the cations.
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Define 'standard enthalpy change of formation'.
Standard enthalpy change of formation, is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of a compound is formed from its constituent elements in their standard states under standard conditions.
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Define 'standard enthalpy change of combustion'.
This is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance is completely burned in oxygen under standard conditions with all reactants and products in their standard states.
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Define 'standard enthalpy change of reaction'.
This is the enthalpy change when a reaction occurs in the molar quantities in a chemical equation in their standard states under standard conditions.
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How do we calculate the enthalpy change?.
Enthalpy change = total energy absorbed - total energy released.
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What is hess's law?.
The total enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define 'ionic bonding'

Back

Ionic bonding is when one of the atoms donates an electron to the other atom in order for them both to gain full outer shells.

Card 3

Front

Define 'dative covalent bond'

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State the behaviour of ionic compounds.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Briefly explain properties of graphite.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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