Chem Unit 1

What is an element?
Simple substance that cant be split
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Approximately how many elements are there?
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Element in the periodioc table are arranged in order of...
Increasing atomic number
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Do metals loose or gain electons?
Loose to become positive ions.
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Do non-metals loose or gain electrons?
Gain to become negative ions.
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What are ionic bonds formed between?
Non-metals and metals
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What are covalent bonds formed between?
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In a chemical reaction no atoms are ever...
... created or destroyed
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What is thermal decomposition?
Heating a compound and breaking it down
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What are the products when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed?
Calcium Oxide and Carbon Dioxide
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What do you see when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed? (Visually)
Turns from green to black
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What can limestone be used for?
Buildings, to make conrecte and mortar and cement
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Explain how cement is made?
Limestone heated with clay in a rotary lime kiln
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Explain how mortar is made?
Cement mixed with sand and water
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Explain how concrete is made?
Cement mixed with sand and water and crushed rock
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Explain how glass is made?
Limestone heated with sand and sodium carbonate
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What is an ore?
Rock containing enough metal to be economically woth extracting.
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Name a metal found 'native':
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What metals can be extracted using carbon?
Metals lower than carbon on the reactivity series.
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What is the apparatus used when extracting iron from an iron ore?
A blast furnace.
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What is reduction?
Taking away oxygen.
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What is the element that makes Iron impure?
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Why is pure iron brittle (hard but easy to break)?
Because atoms are arranged in regular way that allows layers of atoms slide over eachother
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What is an alloy?
Metal mixed with other metallic elements
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Name the alloy iron is made into:
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what 2 elements are usually in steel?
Carbon and Iron
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Why is steel much stronger than iron?
Because steel has more atoms that change the arrangement of the atoms, making it more difficult for the layers to slide.
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What is a smart alloy? Give an example
Alloy that once it has been heated, goes back to it's original shape. An example would be braces.
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Properties of alloys that make them more useful than pure metals:
Harder/stronger. Less corrosive/don't rust
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What type of elements form coloured compounds and act as catalysts?
Transition metals.
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State 2 uses of copper:
Wires and pipes
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Why are aluminium and titanium resistant to corrosion?
Because they have a thin layer of oxides
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Why should we recycle Aluminium and Titanium?
Expensive-Limited resources-not much energy required, less damage to environment, no need to burn fossil fuels-reduces landfill
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How is copper extracted from low grade ores?
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Give brief explanation of Phytomining:
Sugar cane plants grown on low grade copper ore. Plants burnt and ash contains copper
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Give brief explanation of Bioleaching:
Bacteria grown on low grade copper ore and produces a solution containing copper.
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What is crude oil?
Mixture of hydrocarbons
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How can we seperate crude oil into fractions?
Fractional distillation
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What property does fractional distillation depend on?
Boiling point
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What is a hydrocarbon?
compound of hydrogen and carbon
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What is general formula of alkAnes?
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Are alkAnes saturated or unsaturated?
Saturated (single bond)
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What would you see if bromine was added to an alkane?
STAY orange (bc saturated)
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What does volatile mean?
how easily substance evaporates
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what does viscous mean?
How thick a substance is
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What is an environmental issue of sulfur dioxide?
Acid rain
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What does Carbon cause? (environmental issue)
Global dimming
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What is cracking?
Large molecules to small molecules
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How is cracking carried out?
with high temperature and a catalyst
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What are the products of cracking?
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Give general formula of alkEnes
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Are alkEnes saturated or unsaturated?
Unsaturated (double bond)
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What effect does bromine have on alkEnes?
goes colourless
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What is a long chain of molecules called?
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Name the polymere formed from ethene:
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What are uses of polymeres?
Fillings for wisdom teeth. Light-sensitive plasters.
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What is a smart polymere?
Polymeres that change with the environment
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Are polymeres biodegradeable?
No. This is an issue as takes up landfill space.
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How can ethene be made into ethanol?
By reacting it with steam in presence of a catalyst.
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What is a catalyst?
Substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction + never runs out.
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Why is ethanol made from plants carbon neutral but ethanol from fossil fuels/crude oil is not?
Because plants take in Carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis so the carbon dioxide released was in the atmophere anyway. but crude oil is adding to the levels.
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What do we add to oil and water to make them mix?
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What are some examples of these mixtures where emulsifiers are used?
makeup, icecream
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How can we use iodine to show that vegetable oils are unsaturated?
When veg oils are unsaturated the iodine will go colourless because unsaturated=double bond.
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How can we harden oils to make margarine?
Add hydrogen and a nickel catalyst.
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What are additives?
added to food to preserve and make food look appetising.
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How can we identify artificial colours in foods?
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Name the main 3 parts of the earth:
Core, Mantle, Crust
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What is the shrinking earth theory?
As earth cooled it shrivelled and formed mountains/dips.
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What is the crust broken up into?
tectonic plates
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How do tectonic plates move?
Radioactive decay in the corle heat the mantle and cause convection currents.
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What can happen along plate boundaries?
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what evidence proves the earths crust was once one big land mass?
All the tectonic plates fit together (jigsaw fit). have the same fossil fuels.
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What gases were present in the early atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide-methane-amonia-water
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What gases are present in todays atmosphere?
78% Nitrogen. 21% Oxygen. 1% (other)
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How did the carbon dioxide levels decrease?
Dissolved in the oceans. Production of sedimentary rocks such as limestone. Production of fossil fuels from dead plants/animals.
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How has the % of oxygen increased?
Appearance of lants and algae producing oxygen in photosynthesis.
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What gas is produced when fossil fuels go through complete combustion?
Carbon dioxide. This is an issue as it is a greenhouse gas enhancing the greenhouse effect and contributing to global warming. Lots of greenhouse gases trap the earths radiation in and increase temperatures.
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What is special about noble gases?
They have a full outer shell/atoms always travel in pairs.
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Give a use of helium:
Inflate balloons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Approximately how many elements are there?



Card 3


Element in the periodioc table are arranged in order of...


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Do metals loose or gain electons?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Do non-metals loose or gain electrons?


Preview of the front of card 5
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