Chapter 9

What is the first process in the two-process theory of avoidance?
Classical conditioning of a fear response to a CS
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What is the second process of the two-process theory of avoidance
Operant conditioning in which moving away from the CS is negatively reinforced by a reduction of fear
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What is the anxiety conservation hypothesis?
Avoidance responses usually occur so quickly that there is insufficient exposure to the CS for the conditioned fear to fully extinguish
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What is the one-process theory?
The act of avoidance is negatively reinforced simply by the lower rate of aversive stimulation with which it is associated
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What is the species-specific defense reaction theory
Many avoidance behaviours are elicited behaviours rather than operant behaviours
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What two criticisms does Mineka (1980) level at experimental testing of phobias?
In human phobic experiments, the human avoids the CS and the avoidance behaviour seems to condition less readily and tends to be less certain than avoidance behaviour in a phobia
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What treatment is used for OCD that involves avoidance behaviours?
Exposure and response prevention therapy (ERP)
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What is time-out in relation to punishment?
Loss of access to positive reinforcers for a brief period of time following the occurrence of a problem behaviour
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What is response cost?
The removal of specific reinforcers following the occurrence of a problem behaviour
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What is the difference between a primary and secondary punisher?
A primary punisher is an event that is innately punishing, secondary is an event that has been associated with a punisher in the past
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What are problems with use of punishment?
doesn't result in an appropiate behaviour, a person becomes an Sd for punishment (behaviour only reduced in their presence, leading to avoidance), emotional response like aggression, punisher becomes punishee, punisher becomes abusive
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What are some benefits of punishment?
Punishment could lead to social behaviour (more affectionate), punishment sometimes results in an improvement of mood (less crying), punishment can increase attention to the environment
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How do we effectively use punishment?
Immediate use, should follow problem behaviour, intensity from the outset, negative punishment better, punishment is better with an explanation, positive reinforcement of appropriate behaviour
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What is conditioned suppression theory?
Punishment does not weaken a behaviour, but instead produces an emotional response that interferes with the occurrence of a behaviour
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What is the avoidance theory of punishment?
Punishment actually involves avoidance conditioning where the avoidance response consists of any other behaviour besides the punished behaviour
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What is the premack approach to punishment?
A LPB can punish a HPB
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What is learned helplessness?
A dercrement in learning ability resulting from repeated exposure to uncontrollable aversive events
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What is the second process of the two-process theory of avoidance

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Operant conditioning in which moving away from the CS is negatively reinforced by a reduction of fear

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What is the anxiety conservation hypothesis?

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What is the one-process theory?

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What is the species-specific defense reaction theory

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