Chapter 7: Language

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Our mental dictionary
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Units of written language that correspond to a phoneme
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Irregular words take the..
DIRECT lexical route
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Direct lexical route
Where graphemes map directly onto the phoneme
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Pronunciation is accessed via...
INDIRECT sub-lexical route
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Indirect sub-lexical route
Does not involve lexicon, maps grapheme onto pronunciation
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A disorder involving difficulty reading and writing
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Surface dyslexia
Unable to read irregular words (impaired DIRECT lexical route)
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Phonological dyslexia
Unable to read pronounceable non-words (impaired INDIRECT sub-lexical route)
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Semantic priming
Meaning of word influences the processing of other words that are conceptually related
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Deep dyslexia
Readers cannot retrieve the meaning of words
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Linguistic realtivity hypothesis
Language may influence the way we think and perceive
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Mental representation that groups or categories shared features of related objects, events or other stimuli
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Category-specific deficit
An inability to recognise objects that belong to a particular category, while leaving the ability to recognise objects outside the category untouched
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Family resemblance
Where members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member
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Prototype theory
Our psychological categorisation is organised around the most typical member of a cetgory
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Exemplar theory
We make category judegments by comparing a new instance with stored memories of other instances of the category
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Availability bias
Items more readily available in the memory are judged to have occurred more frequently
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Is a well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem
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Conjunction fallacy
When people think two events are more likely to occur together than separately
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Representative heuristic
A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgement by comparing an object or event to the prototype of that object ro event
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Framing effects
People give different answers to the same problem depending on how the he problem is phrased
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Sunk-cost fallacy
Which occurs when people make decisions about a current situation based on past investments
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Prospect theory
Which proposes that people choose to take on a risk when evaluating potential losses and avoid risks when evaluating potential gains
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Certainty effect
Suggests that people rely more on certainty than possibility in their decisions
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Frequency format hypothesis
Our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, and not how likely they are to occcur
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Ill-defined problem
One that does not have a clear goal or clear solution paths
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Defined problem
One with clearly specified goals and clearly defined solution paths
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Means-ends analysis
A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce the difference between the current situation and the desired goals,
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Analogical problem solving
Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution and applying that solution to the current problem
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Functional fixedness
The tendency to perceive the functions of objects as fixed
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A mental activity that consists of organising information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions
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Card 2


Units of written language that correspond to a phoneme



Card 3


DIRECT lexical route


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Card 4


Where graphemes map directly onto the phoneme


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Card 5


INDIRECT sub-lexical route


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