Chapter 2

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The scientific method allows us to determine the .... of natural phenomena
Causes
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What are the three basic forms of scientific research?
Naturalistic observations, experiments and correlational studies
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Hypotheses are statements or predictions made on the basis of ...
Naturalistic observations, previous experiments or from formal theories
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What is an independent groups design?
Where the individuals in one group are not the same as those in the other
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What is a repeated measures design?
Where the same individuals take part in all conditions of the experiment
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An ... variable is an event, factor that is manipulated by the experimenter; the ... variable is the quantity measured in an experiment (and is ... to be influence by the ... variable)
Independent, dependent, hypothesised, independent
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To perform an experiment, a scientist alters the ... of the independent variable and measures ... in the dependent variable
Value, changes
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A psychologist must specify the .... that they will perform to manipulate the ... variable and to measure the ... variable
Particular operations, independent, dependent
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Operational definitions are a necessary part of the procedure by which a ... is tested
Hypothesis
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They can also eliminate .... by giving ...to the hypothesis, making its meaning absolutely ... to other scientists
Confusion, concrete form, clear
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... is the degree to which an operational definition produces a particular value of an independent variable or measures the value of a dependent variable
Validity
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... refers to the consistency and precision of an operational definition
Reliability
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Researchers achieve high reliability by carefully ... the conditions of their studies and by ensuring that ... are followed ...
Controlling, procedures, correctly
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Measurement involving subjectivity requires researchers to seek high ...
Inter-rater reliability
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When designing an experiment, experimenters ensure that they control ... variables that may ... their results.
Extraneous, confound
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If an extra variable is ... and if this extra variable has an effect on the ..., then the results of the experiment will be ...
Inadvertently manipulated, dependent variable, invalid
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Confounding of subject variables can be caused by improperly ... participants to ... or by ... that cause some participants to ... the experiment
Assigning, groups, treatments, leave
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Card 2

Front

What are the three basic forms of scientific research?

Back

Naturalistic observations, experiments and correlational studies

Card 3

Front

Hypotheses are statements or predictions made on the basis of ...

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an independent groups design?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a repeated measures design?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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