Changing Urban Environments

HideShow resource information
Why does rural-urban migration occur in poorer countries?
Poorer countries often have a shortage of services, and people often think the standard of living is better in cities. Also, more jobs in urban areas. Industry is attracted to cities cus there's a larger workforce and better infrastructure
1 of 31
Why does rural-urban migration occur in richer countries?
Most urbanisation in rich countries occurred during the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions (18th and 19th centuries). Machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas, jobs created in factories in urban areas.
2 of 31
What are the parts of a city?
CBD, Inner city, suburbs, rural-urban fringe
3 of 31
Describe the CBD
Usually found in the centre of city. The commercial centre of the city with shops and offices, where transport routes meet. Has veery high land values, as lots of competition for space. Buildings tall and building density high, Very few people live
4 of 31
Describe the Inner city
Around the CBD, has a mix of poorer quality housing and older industrial buildings. Inner city can be quite run-down but tree's also newer housing and industry where derelict land has been cleared and redeveloped.
5 of 31
Describe the suburbs
Housing areas towards the edge of the city. land here cheaper and still close enough to comment into the centre of the city for work easily. Middle-class families tend to live in the suburbs.
6 of 31
Describe rural-urban fringe
At the edge of a city, where there are both urban and rural land uses. Here you tend to find less, however, larger houses.
7 of 31
Why doesn't land use always match this model?
For example in countries like France, Italy and Sweden, the inner city areas are where the wealthy middle-class live and the suburbs tend to be the more deprived areas.
8 of 31
What problems do cities in richer countries have?
Shortage of quality housing, run down CBD's, traffic congest and pollution from cars, ethnic segregation
9 of 31
Describe how countries can tackle a shortage of quality housing
Urban renewal schemes - Gov strategies first used in 90's. Encourage investment in new housing, services and employment in derelict areas. New Towns - e.g. Milton Keynes -Relocation incentives-encourage people living in large council houses to move
10 of 31
Describe how countries can tackle a Run down CBD
Happens due to competition from out-of-town shopping centres that are cheaper and easier to get to. Examples of strategies include Pedestrianising areas, making them safer and nicer. Improving access with better public transport links and car parks.
11 of 31
Describe how countries can tackle an issue with traffic congestion
improve public transport, increase car parking charges in city centres, bus priority lanes, pedestrianising of central areas
12 of 31
What are the issues with ethnic segregation?
Happens due to people wanted to live near people with the same background, religion, and language.
13 of 31
Describe how countries can tackle an issue with ethnic segregation
Give access to info about different services e.g. leaflets in a variety of languages. Improving comms between a community e.g. involving the leaders of different ethnic groups when making decisions. Providing interpreters at places like hospitals.
14 of 31
What are Squatter Settlements?
Settlements built illegally in and around the city be people that can't afford proper housing. They are badly built, overcrowded, and don't have basic services like electricity or sewers. Often life is difficult and dangerous.
15 of 31
What is meant by the informal sector of the economy?
Where people work where the jobs are not taxed or monitored by the government. It often involves people working long hours for little pay
16 of 31
What are the ways in which squatter settlements can be improved?
Self-help schemes, Site and service schemes, Local authority schemes
17 of 31
Describe self-help schemes
These involve the gov and locals working together to improve life in the settlement. The gov supplies building materials and locals use them to build homes
18 of 31
Describe site and service schemes
People pay a small amount of rent for a site, and they can borrow money to buy building materials to build or improve a house on their plot
19 of 31
Describe local authority schemes
Funded by local gov, it is about improving temporary accommodation built by residents
20 of 31
What are the environmental issues with Urbanisation?
Waste disposal problems, air pollution, water pollution
21 of 31
How do richer countries dispose of waste?
Burying it in landfill sites, burning it, or recycling
22 of 31
Why can't poorer countries do this as easily?
Money - toxic waste treatment can be expensive. Infrastructure - poor roads in places like squatter settlements can't provide access for waste disposal lorries. Scale - the problem is huge, a large city will generate thousands of tonnes waste per day
23 of 31
What are the effects of Air Pollution?
Causes acid rain, health problems like bronchitis, some pollutants destroy ozone layer. Management strategies include setting air quality standards for industries and constantly monitoring levels of pollutants to check they're safe
24 of 31
What are the effects of Water Pollution?
Kills fish and aquatic animals, disrupts food chain. Harmful chemicals can build up in food chain and poison humans. Contamination of water supplies can spread diseases like typhoid. Management strategies include sewage treatment plants
25 of 31
What are the ways in which a city can become more sustainable?
Schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it, Conserving natural environments and historic buildings, building on brownfield sites, building carbon-neutral homes, and creating an efficient public transport system
26 of 31
Describe schemes to reduce waste and safely dispose of it
More recycling means fewer resources needed. Less waste is produced, which reduces amount that goes to landfill. Safely disposing of toxic waste reduces pollution
27 of 31
Describe conserving natural environments and historic buildings
These are resources. If they get used, they cannot be used in the future. Historic buildings can be restored and natural environments can be protected. Existing green areas should be left alone
28 of 31
Describe building on brownfield sites
Building new buildings on brownfield sites tops green space being used up.
29 of 31
Describe building carbon-neutral homes
These are homes that generate as much energy as they use e.g. by using solar panels
30 of 31
Describe creating an efficient public transport system
Fewer cars on road, so pollution reduced. You can use buses, trains, and tram systems that use less fuel e.g. Hydrogen power
31 of 31

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why does rural-urban migration occur in richer countries?

Back

Most urbanisation in rich countries occurred during the Industrial and Agricultural Revolutions (18th and 19th centuries). Machinery began to replace farm labour in rural areas, jobs created in factories in urban areas.

Card 3

Front

What are the parts of a city?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the CBD

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the Inner city

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Urban environments resources »