Changing Urban Environments

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  • Created by: Carolyn
  • Created on: 21-04-14 11:21
The growth in the proportion of a country's population that lives in towns and cities. In the UK, it is 85-90%.
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Millionaire cities
Cities with over 1 million inhabitants. In 1950, only Paris and London were called 'millionaire cities, however today there are over 300 around the world.
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Cities with a population of over 10 million habitants.
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The Burgess Model
An urban land use model from 1924 that shows the CBD as the centre and rings of other land uses around it.
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The Hoyt Model
An urban land use model from 1939 that shows rings around the CBD but also adds some sectors of land uses.
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Land use
Used to describe what is built or found on the land. There are numerous catergories, such as residential, recreational or industrial.
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Central business district; largest offices ands shops, including department stores; skyscrapers and other tall buildings; transport - buses, trains; high land value; traffic congestion and pollution.
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Inner city
Old high-density terraced housing, some 3 or 4 storeys; high-rise flats, mainly built in 1960s; industry; small shops; low land value; run-down appearance.
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Inner and outer suburbs
Residental; small shopping parades; farmland; semi-detached and detached housing, some inter-war, some modern; private estates; gardens, garages with open space; medium but rising land value; difficult access into city.
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What are the four main issues that urban areas are facing today?
Housing, traffic congestion, changing CBD and cultural issues.
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Ethnic segregation
When a significant number of people from a particular ethnic group choose to live with people of a similar ethnicity or origin to them and live away from others with a different ethnicity or culture. Reasons - language, near cultural facilities.
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It doesn't harm the environment; it has ecomic and social benefits too; and benefits people in the short- and long-term.
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Urban sprawl
The spread or expansion of the urban area into the surrounding countryside.
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Squatter settlement
'Self-built' areas of cities on areas of land which they do not own using materials found nearby (often illagal).
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Informal sector
Part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try and get an income (e.g. taking in washing, mending bicycles) and which aren't recognised in official figures.
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Sometimes known as 'assisted self-help' (ASH). This is where local authorities help the squatter settlement residents to improve their homes by offering finance (loans or grants) and often installing water, sanitation etc.
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Site and service
A more formal way of helping squatter settlement residents. land is identified for scheme (site) and the infrastructure is laid (service). When water and electricity are supplied to the plots people canbuild their own houses using found materials.
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Local authority
Large scale improvements made by governments. In some cases new toens are constructed. Houses, shops and schools are built along with the industries to provide jobs for new inhabitants.
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Bottom up schemes
Lost cost and make use of cheap materials/local labour. Planned and managed by local people (sometimes with support from charites). Use basic technology that can be fixed easily without expensive tools etc. Benefitsto locals. Sustainable, longterm.
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Top down schemes
Expensive, more prestigious projects that often make the Government look good (often run out of money). Planned and managed by the city council or Government with little consultation from locals. Uses complex technology. Often creates problems.
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Millionaire cities


Cities with over 1 million inhabitants. In 1950, only Paris and London were called 'millionaire cities, however today there are over 300 around the world.

Card 3




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The Burgess Model


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The Hoyt Model


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