cell structure

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what cells are Eukaryotic?
animal, plant, fungi, protists
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which cells are multicellular which arent?
multicellular: eukaryotic // singlecelled: prokaryotes
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what cells are Prokaryotic
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name 4 properties of Prokaryotes
single celled, no nucleus, smaller than Eukaryotic cells, may have small rings of DNA called plasmids
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how big are individual bacterial cells roughly
1 - 10 micrometres ( µm )
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what are groups of bacterial cells called
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what do some scientists think about prokaryote + eukaryote cells to explain their poperties
prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes so they are missing some cell parts eukaryotes contain. they think they appeared 3.5 billion years ago.
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list the components found in bacterial cells
cytoplasm, cell wall, loop of DNA, plasmids, cell membrane, ribosome
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cytoplasms - bacteria
fluid part of the cell inside the cell membrane. mainly water and holds other components such as ribosomes. here most of the chemical reactions in the cell happen.
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cell wall - bacteria
bacterial cells have a cell wall to provide support, however, in prokaryotes, this isnt made of cellulose but another substance.
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single loop of DNA - bacteria
not arranged into complex chromosomes like in eukaryotic cells and not in a nucleus.
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plasmids - bacteria
small circular sections of DNA, provide genetic variation for bacteria
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cell membrane - -bacteria
controlls what substances enter and exit the cell. has internal extensions that have enzymes attached to them. respiration occurs in these enzymes
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ribosome - bacteria
a small cell organelle in which proteins are made
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list the components found in eukaryotic cells
cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole, mitochondia, ribosome, chloroplast, nucleus, cell membrane
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cytoplasm - eukaryote
site of chemical rections (as eukayotes are bigger than prokaryotes this is bigger too)
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cell wall - eukaryote
only in plant and fungal eukaryotic cells. Made of cellulose and prevents cell from bursting
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ribosomes - eukaryote
make proteins by joining amino acids together in long chains (different sizes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
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chloroplasts - eukaryote
light energy is captured and converted into food (only some eukaryotes do this), prokaryotes dont have this as they do it in the cell membrane
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cell membrane - eukaryote
controlls what exits and enters the cell (Parts of the cell membrane are the sites of photosynthesis and respiration in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes.)
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nucleus - eukaryote
Storing the codes for making all the proteins needed by the cell
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vacuole - eukaryote
storage space (Plant cells have a permanent vacuole whereas animal cells and prokaryotes don't)
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mitochondria - eukaryote
respiration occurs here (eukaryotes do this in the mitochondria whereas bacteria do this on a spacial part of the cell membrane)
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what are the components animal cells have
mitochondrion, cell membrane, ribosome, nucleus, cytoplasm
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what are the components plant cells have
nucleus, cell wall, cell membrance, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, vacuole, ribosome, mitochondrion
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what is a similarity and difference between animal cells and plant cells
similarity: cytoplasm is also mainly water // difference: has a nucleus and not a loop of DNA
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what is a similarity and difference between animal cells and plane cells
similarity: both have a nucleus // difference: plants have a cell wall for support + a permanent vacuole
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sperm cell adaptaions
1. Tail for swimming 2. Acrosome head containing enzymes 3. Packed with mitochondria for releasing energy from food 4. Streamlined shape 5. Haploid number of chromosomes (23)
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nerve cell adaptations
1. Long axons 2. Connections at each end 3. Can carry electrical signals 4. Myelin sheath insulates axon
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muscle cell adaptations
1. Many mitochondria 2. Lots of capillaries around muscle 3. Long and flat
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root hair cell adaptations
1. Large surface area 2. Contains no chloroplasts 3. Semi-permeable cell membrane 4. Large vacuole
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xylem cell adaptations
1. Space containing no cytoplasm 2. No end cell walls 3. Cell walls contain lignin
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phloem cell adaptations
1. Companion cells companion many mitochondria 2. Sieve pores
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function of xylem cells
movement of water from its roots to its leaves
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function of phloem cells
Transports food and nutrients from the leaves to storage organs and growing parts of the plant
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phloem cell adaptation explaination
Companion cells have many mitochondria as this provides the energy needed to load sugars from mesophyll cells into sieve tubes by active transport. Sieve pores allow rapid flow of manufactured food though sieve tubes.
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how do you work out total magification
magnification eyepeice lens x magnification objective lens
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who invented the transmission electron microscope (TEM) ?
Ernst Ruska + max knoll
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who invented the scanning electron microscope (SEM) ?
manfred von ardenne
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how do TEM work?
they fire a large beam of electrons through a very thin slice of the specimen. all electrons are fired at the same time, not all electrons make it through & the image is made from those that do
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how do SEM work?
SEM also use a beam of electrons but it is much smaller and scans accross the whole imae but not all at the same time meaning electrons scatter from the surface of the sample and are detected to make a image
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how do TEM and SEM look different
transmission electron microscopes: look 2D + b&w scanning electrom microscope: look 3D + b&w
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what is the advantage of TEM/SEM?
they can magnify more than light microscopes, but they also provide better resolution
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what is resolution?
the shortest distance between two parts of a specimen that can be seen as two distinctly separate points
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how do you work out the magnification of a image
image size = actual size x magnification
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say the units of distance in orfer from big to small
km, metre, cm, mm, micrometre, nanometre
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what are they in the form 10^x
km=10^3 m=1 mm=10^-3 µm=10^-6 nm=10^-9
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turn 4µm into m
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turn 15cm into nm
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Card 2


multicellular: eukaryotic // singlecelled: prokaryotes


which cells are multicellular which arent?

Card 3




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Card 4


single celled, no nucleus, smaller than Eukaryotic cells, may have small rings of DNA called plasmids


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Card 5


1 - 10 micrometres ( µm )


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