C7.2 The Chemistry of Carbon Compounds

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  • Created by: Lili
  • Created on: 19-06-13 12:09
Name the Molecular Formulas for Methane, Ethane, Propane and Butane.
M=CH E=C H P=C H B=C H
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Give the Equation for Methane Reacting in Air.
Methane + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water
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Why Do Alkanes Not React WIth Solutions of Acids & Alkalis?
They do not react as their C-C and C-H bonds are difficult to break and are therefore un-reactive.
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In Alkanes All Bonds Between Carbon Atoms are Single Bonds. The Molecules are Saturated, What Does This Mean?
Saturation is when no more hydrogen atoms can be added to them.
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In Alkenes Bonds Between Carbon Atoms are Double Bonds. They are Described as Unsaturated, What Does This Mean?
Unsaturated means that more hydrogen atoms can be added, this means alkenes are reactive.
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What Do Alcohol Molecules Contain?
An -OH functional group.
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Name the Molecular Formulas for Methanol and Ethanol.
M= CH OH E= C H OH
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Name the Uses of Methanol.
Raw materials to make glues, foams, windscreen wash
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Name the Uses of Ethanol.
Solvents, Fuel, Drinks
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Why Do Methanol and Ethanol Mix Well with Water?
Their -OH group is similar to water H2O.
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Why Does Alcohol Have Higher Boiling Points in Comparison to Other Compounds with Similar Relative Formula Masses?
Ethanol has a high boiling point of 79oC. Propane with a similar r.f.m. boils at -42oC. Alcohol has a higher boiling point because -OH groups tend to pull their materials together.
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Why Does Ethanol Have a Lower Boiling Point Than Water?
This is because there are only weak attractive forces between the hydrocarbon parts of ethanol molecules. Water molecules are held together more tightly.
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What Are the Chemical Properties of Alcohols?
They have a hydrocarbon chain so they can burn in air. Ethanol + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water
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Why Do Alcohols React with Sodium in the Same Way That Water Reacts with Sodium?
The reactions are similar because both alcohol and water have an -OH group. When they react the O-H bond breaks.
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Name the 3 Main Methods of Manufacturing Ethanol.
From Sugars, From Biomass Waste, From Ethane
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Describe How Ethanol is Made Through the Fermentation of Sugars.
Fermentation converts simple sugars such as glucose into ethanol. The sugars come from plants such as, sugar cane, sugar beet, maize and rice.
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What is the Role of Enzymes in Fermentation?
Enzymes in yeast catalyse fermentation. The process works best between 25oC and 37oC. The pH for the reaction must be correct, changes in the pH change the shape of the enzyme.
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What is the Equation for Fermentation of Sugars to Ethanol?
Glucose ---> Ethanol + Carbon Dioxide
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How is Ethanol Obtained from E. Coli?
Genetically modified E. Coli bacteria can be used to convert waste biomass (for example corn stalks and wood waste) into ethanol.
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What are the Optimum Conditions for the Process?
A temperature between 25oC and 37oC. A pH between 6 and 7.
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How is Ethanol Obtained from Ethane?
Ethane is obtained from natural gas. It is converted into ethene in cracking reaction. It is also obtained by cracking naphtha from crude oil.
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What Conditions are Needed to Create the Reaction?
The ethene reacts with steam at 300oC and 60-70 time atmospheric pressure. A Phosphoric acid catalyst speeds up the reaction.
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What is the Yield from the Reaction?
The first time ethene and steam go through the reactor, the yield is only about 5%, however is sent through several times until the final yield is about 95%.
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What is the Equation for the Reaction?
C H + H O ---> C H OH
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What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Making Ethanol From Sugars?
A= Feedstocks renewable, low energy costs. D= Produces waste carbon dioxide, land used to grow crops for making ethanol and not food.
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What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Making Ethanol From Waste Biomass?
A= Feedstocks renewable, Can use waste biomass as a feedstock, Low energy costs. D= Produces waste carbon dioxide, not yet used on a large scale.
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What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Making Ethanol From Ethane?
A= Feedstocks a by-product of cracking reaction naphtha D= Feedstock not renewable, high energy costs.
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What is a Carboxylic Acid?
Carboxylic acid contains the function group:
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Name 2 Example of Carboxylic Acid.
Methanoic Acid, HCOOH and Ethanoic Acid, CH COOH
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What Are the Properties of Carboxylic Acid?
Properties of carboxylic acids are determined by their functional group. Hydrogen ions leave this group when a carboxylic acid dissolves in water. Like other acids it also reacts with alkalis, metals and carbonates.
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What Type of Acid is a Carboxylic Acid?
It is a weak acid, only a few molecules are ionised at a time. This means they are less reactive than strong acids, such as sulphuric acid and hydrochloric acid.
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What is an Ester?
Esters contain the functional group:
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Describe an Esters Characteristics.
They have distinctive smells. They are responsible for the smells and flavours of fruits.
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Name Some Examples of How we Use Esters.
To Flavour Foods, To Make Sweet Smelling Perfumes, Shampoos, and Bubble Baths, As Solvents, As A Plasticiser To Make Polymers Such As PVC Soft and Flexible.
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Describe the Process of Making an Ester.
Heat the reactants (ethanol, pure ethanoic acid, concentrated sulphuric acid) under reflux condenser; Then distill the mixture to separate the ester from the reaction mixture; Purify, by shaking the reagents on a tap funnel; Shake with anhydrous...
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Describe the Process of Making an Ester.
...calcium chloride to get pure, dry ethyl ethanoate.
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Give an Example of an Ester Reaction.
Ethanoic Acid + Methanol ---> Methyl Ethanoate + Water
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What Are Fats and Oils?
They are esters of glycerol, an alcohol with 3 -OH groups, or fatty acids which have long hydrocarbon chains.
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What is an Example of a Saturated Fat?
Animal fats, like butter and lard are mostly made up of saturated molecules. Solid at room temperature.
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What is an Example of a Unsaturated Oil?
Vegetable oils, like sunflower oil are made mostly up of unsaturated molecules. Liquid at room temperature.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give the Equation for Methane Reacting in Air.

Back

Methane + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water

Card 3

Front

Why Do Alkanes Not React WIth Solutions of Acids & Alkalis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In Alkanes All Bonds Between Carbon Atoms are Single Bonds. The Molecules are Saturated, What Does This Mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

In Alkenes Bonds Between Carbon Atoms are Double Bonds. They are Described as Unsaturated, What Does This Mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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