C10

What is organic chemistry?
The chemistry of carbon compounds
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What is a functional group?
An atom ot group of atoms that gives a group of organic compounds their characteristic reaction
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What is an alkene?
Hydrocarbons with at least one carbon=carbon bond
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What do all alkenes have?
A double carbon bond
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What is a homologous series?
All the things in that functional group like methane, ethane and propane
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What is the point of a functional group?
A way to distinguish compounds and the functional groups often share similar properties
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List the start of the hydrocarbons?
Meth, eth, pro, but, pen, hex, hep, oct, non, dec
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What is the formula for the combustion of alkenes?
Alkene + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water
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What is the formula for an alkene with steam?
Alkene + steam = alcohol
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What is the functional group of alcohol?
-OH
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What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?
-COOH
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What is the functional group for esters?
-COO
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Why are alcohols not hydrocarbons?
Because they contain oxygen
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What does -OH increase?
Boiling point
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If a hydrocarbon is a long chain what does this increase?
Boiling point
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Why are intermolecular forces between alcohols so strong?
The -OH groups attract to each other
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Why do alcohols have a stronger boiling point compared to alkanes of the same length?
Because more energy is needed to separate the molecules
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Why is there no reaction between alkanes and sodium?
Because sodium is not reactive enough to force alkane to react
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What is the formula for the reaction between ethanol and sodium?
Ethanol + sodium + sodium ethoxide + hydrogen
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What is the equation for water and sodium?
Water + sodium = sodium hydroxide + hydrogen
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What is the solubility of alcohols in water affected by?
The -OH functional group and the hydrocarbon chain
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What does the -OH group allow the alcohol to do?
Fully dissolve in water and form a neutral solution. The longer the alcohol the less soluble they are in water
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What is the formula to make ethanol by fermentation?
Glucose= ethanol + carbon dioxide *
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What is the formula for ethanol and oxygen atoms from oxidising agent?
Ethanol + oxygen from oxidising agent = ethanoic acid + water
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What are the two ways to oxidise to ethanoic acid?
By chemical oxidising agents or microbes in air
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What is a use for ethanoic acid?
Vinegar
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What forms when a carboxylic acid is dissolved in water?
Acidic solutions
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What is the formula for ethanoic acid and sodium carbonate?
Ethanoic acid + sodium carbonate = sodium ethanoate + water+ carbon dioxide
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Why are carboxylic acids called weak acids?
Because CO2 gas is given off more slowly when a metal carbonate reacts with a carboxylic acid
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Why is C02 gas given off slower?
Because they are weak acids and acids must dissolve in water before their acidic properties are shown
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What happens to acids when they dissolve in water?
They ionise and their molecules split up to from H+ ions and negative ions
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What happens to carboxylic acids when they dissolve in water?
Most of the molecules stay as they are and only a small proportion will ionise
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A reversible reaction takes place in the water and where does the position of equilibrium lie?
Equilibrium lies well over to the left
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What is the formula for this reversible reaction?
*
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A carboxylic acid has a higher PH than a strong acid what does this result in?
A slower reaction with metal carbonate
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What do carboxylic acids react with to form esters?
Alcohols
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What is the formula for the reaction of carboxylic acids and alcohol?
*
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What are some physical properties of esters?
They have distinct smells (fruity/sweet) and are ideal in perfume and food flavouring
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What is a chemical property of esters?
They are volatile
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What does volatile mean?
They evaporate easily
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What is the formula for ethene and bromine?
Ethene+bromine = dibromoethane
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What does the di stand for in dibromoethane?
Two meaning two bromines
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Why does ethene change to ethane?
The double carbon bond is broken to make room for the bromine
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What are alkenes? (In terms of saturating)
Unsaturated
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What does unsaturated mean?
Not the full amount of hydrogen in it
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What does saturated mean?
The full amount of hydrogen
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What is an alkane? (In terms of saturating)
Saturated- full amount of hydrogens
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What is the formula for an alkene turning into an alkane?
Alkene+ hydrogen= alkane *
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What are the three uses of alcohol
Biofuel, alcoholic drink and organic solvent
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What is an addition reaction?
When two or more molecules combine to form a larger molecule
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What is carbocation?
A carbon with a positive charge
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When you add bromine to an alkene what colour changes happen?
It goes from brown to colourless
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What is hydrogenation?
Adding hydrogen to something
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What conditions are needed for hydrogenation to happen to an alkene?
60 degrees and a nickel catalyst
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What is cracking a type of?
Thermal decompisiton
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What is a primary alcohol?
The carbon carrying the -0H is only attatched to one other carbon
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What is a secondary alcohol?
The carbon carrying the -0H is only attatched to two other carbons
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What is a tertiary alcohol?
The carbon carrying the -0H is only attatched to three other carbons
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When drawing the alcohol Butan-3-ol where does the -OH go?
On the third carbon
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When drawing the alcohol methylpropan-2-ol, which part is drawn first?
The propan-2-ol
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When drawing the alcohol methylpropan-2-ol, which part is drawn last?
Adding the methyl part onto the right carbon
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When drawing the alcohol 3,methylpentanol, which carbon does the meth part go on?
The third carbon
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a functional group?

Back

An atom ot group of atoms that gives a group of organic compounds their characteristic reaction

Card 3

Front

What is an alkene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do all alkenes have?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a homologous series?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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