C1 Definitions

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Crude oil
Liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago
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Fossil fuel
Fuel that was formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago
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Non-renewable resource
Resource, such as fuel that was made a long time ago and is being used up faster than it is being made now
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Finite resource
Resource, such as fuel, that exists in a certain amount and that is not being replaced as it is used so will eventually run out
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Fractional distillation
Separation of a mixture into fractions that boil at different temperatures
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Fraction
Part of a mixture that can be seperated from the rest by a physical process such as boiling
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Impermeable
Layer of material that does not allow a liquid to pass through it
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Oil well
Shaft drilled into the Earth to allow crude oil to be brough to the surface
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Oil slick
Layer of oil floating on water in the sea or in the lake
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Petrochemical
Chemical obtained from crude oil
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Cracking
Process of breaking large molecules into smaller ones by heating or using a catalyst
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Catalyst
Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction
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Fuel
Substance that releases energy when it is burnt
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Combustion
Process of burning fossil fuels which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and provides energy
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Complete combustion
The burning of a hydrocarbon to produce carbon dioxide and water only
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Limewater
Solution of calcium hydroxide in water
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Incomplete combustion
Burning of a hydrocarbon to produce substances that could be oxidised further, such as carbon (soot) and carbon monoxide
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Carbon monoxide
Poisonous gas that contains one atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen in each molecule, CO
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Soot
Deposit of carbon formed by the incomplete combustion of compounds containing carbon
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Pollution
Contamination of the environment by harmful substances
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Toxicity
Extent to which a substance can damage a living creature
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Atmosphere
Mixture of gases surrounding the Earth
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Volcanic activity
Eruption of volcanoes, releasing large amounts of gases into the atmosphere
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Photosythesis
Process by which plants build carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, using sunlight energy
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Respiration
Process by which living things release energy from carbohydrates, also producing carbon dioxide and water
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Global warming
Effect caused by greenhouse gases building up in the atmosphere causing a rise in the global temperature
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Deforestation
Process of cutting down large numbers of trees to clear the ground for building or for growing crops
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Pollutant
Substance released into the environment that can cause harm to living things, including humans
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Acid rain
Rain containing some gases from the air that makes and acid solution. Acid rain dissolves some materials, such as limestone
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Photochemical smog
Form of atmospheric pollution caused by the action of sunlight on pollutants from exhaust gases from cars
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Catalytic converter
System that removes pollutants from car exhaust gases
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Hydrocarbon
Compound whose molecules contain atoms of hydrogen and carbon only
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Alkane
Hydrocarbon that contains no rings or double bonds in a molecule
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Displayed formula
Description of a covalently bonded compound or element that uses symbols for atoms and that also shows the covalent bonds between the atoms
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Covalent bond
Shared pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
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Alkene
Hydrocarbon that contains a double bond (two shared pairs of electrons) between two carbon atoms
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Saturated
Compound that contains no double bonds in its molecules
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Unsaturated
Compound that contains at least on double bond in its molecules
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Addition reaction
Reaction in which two reactants combine to make only one product
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Polymer
Material whose molecules are made up of many repeated units
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Monomer
Material whose molecules are the individual structural units of a polymer
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Polymerisation
Reaction in which monomer molecules join together to make a polymer
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Addition polymerisation
Polymerisation reaction that only involves addition reactions
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Cross-link
Bond that links two polymer chains together
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Waterproof clothing
Clothing that does not allow rain to pass through it to the inside
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Breathable clothing
Clothing that allows water vapour to pass through but does not allow liquid water (rain) to pass through
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Laminated
Made up of layers joined together
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Non-biodegradable
Not able to be broken down by the action of bacteria
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Landfill site
Large hole in the ground in which rubbish is dumped
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Biodegradable
Can be broken down by microorganisms
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Chemical change
Change in which new substances are formed that have different chemical properties from the original substances
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Protein
Very large molecule contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that is found in living things
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Texture
The feel of a material
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Denaturing
Process of changing the structure of a protein molecule by heating (cooking) or chemical treatment
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Starch
Large carbohydrate with molecules that are polymers of sugars
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Carbohydrate
Compound such as sugar or starch that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the general formula CH2O
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Decomposition
Process of breaking up molecules into smaller ones
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Food additive
Substance added to a food to improve its appearance, taste or keeping quality
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Antioxidant
Food additive that slows down the reaction of a food with oxygen from the air
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Food colour
Food additive that improves the colour of a food, making it look more attractive
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Flavour enhancer
Additive that improves that taste of food
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Emulsifier
Material that enables a stable mixture to be formed between two liquids that would normally separate, such as oil and water
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Hydrophillic
The part of the molecule that interacts well with water
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Hydrophobic
The part of the molecule that does not interact well with water but does interact well with oil
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Cosmetics
Substances used to change a persons appearance
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Synthetic
Describes a substance that does not occur in nature but has to be made in a laboratory
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Perfume
Volatile substance that has a pleasant smell
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Ester
Compound such as ethyl ethonate made by reacting an organic acid with an alcohol
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Volaticity
Ability of a substance to evaporate
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Organic acid
Acid that has molecules containing a carbon chain
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Solution
Mixture of a substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid
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Solvent
Liquid that dissolves a substance to form a solution
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Solute
Substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
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Soluble
Describes a substance that will dissolve in a liquid
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Insoluble
Describes a substance that will not dissolve in a liquid
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Pigement
Coloured material used in paints
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Paint
Mixture of substances used to decorate or protect surfaces
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Emulsion paint
Paint made up of substances forming an emulsion in water
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Oil paint
Paint in which materials are dispersed in oil
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Colloid
Mixture of substances dispersed throughout a liquid
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Dispersed
Spread throughout
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Thermochromic
Describes a substance that changes colour according to the temperature
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Dye
Coloured substance the dissolves in a liquid that can be used to colour cloth
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Phosphorescent
Describes something that gives out light that has been absorbed earlier
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Radioactive
Describes something that emits radiation from the nucleus of an atom
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Radiation
Transfer of energy across a distance, sometimes in the form of particles given off by the nuclei of radioactive atoms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Fuel that was formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago

Back

Fossil fuel

Card 3

Front

Resource, such as fuel that was made a long time ago and is being used up faster than it is being made now

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Resource, such as fuel, that exists in a certain amount and that is not being replaced as it is used so will eventually run out

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Separation of a mixture into fractions that boil at different temperatures

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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