C1 Definitions

Crude oil
Liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago
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Fossil fuel
Fuel that was formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago
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Non-renewable resource
Resource, such as fuel that was made a long time ago and is being used up faster than it is being made now
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Finite resource
Resource, such as fuel, that exists in a certain amount and that is not being replaced as it is used so will eventually run out
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Fractional distillation
Separation of a mixture into fractions that boil at different temperatures
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Part of a mixture that can be seperated from the rest by a physical process such as boiling
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Layer of material that does not allow a liquid to pass through it
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Oil well
Shaft drilled into the Earth to allow crude oil to be brough to the surface
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Oil slick
Layer of oil floating on water in the sea or in the lake
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Chemical obtained from crude oil
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Process of breaking large molecules into smaller ones by heating or using a catalyst
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Substance that speeds up a reaction without being used up in the reaction
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Substance that releases energy when it is burnt
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Process of burning fossil fuels which releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and provides energy
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Complete combustion
The burning of a hydrocarbon to produce carbon dioxide and water only
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Solution of calcium hydroxide in water
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Incomplete combustion
Burning of a hydrocarbon to produce substances that could be oxidised further, such as carbon (soot) and carbon monoxide
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Carbon monoxide
Poisonous gas that contains one atom of carbon and one atom of oxygen in each molecule, CO
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Deposit of carbon formed by the incomplete combustion of compounds containing carbon
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Contamination of the environment by harmful substances
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Extent to which a substance can damage a living creature
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Mixture of gases surrounding the Earth
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Volcanic activity
Eruption of volcanoes, releasing large amounts of gases into the atmosphere
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Process by which plants build carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, using sunlight energy
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Process by which living things release energy from carbohydrates, also producing carbon dioxide and water
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Global warming
Effect caused by greenhouse gases building up in the atmosphere causing a rise in the global temperature
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Process of cutting down large numbers of trees to clear the ground for building or for growing crops
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Substance released into the environment that can cause harm to living things, including humans
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Acid rain
Rain containing some gases from the air that makes and acid solution. Acid rain dissolves some materials, such as limestone
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Photochemical smog
Form of atmospheric pollution caused by the action of sunlight on pollutants from exhaust gases from cars
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Catalytic converter
System that removes pollutants from car exhaust gases
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Compound whose molecules contain atoms of hydrogen and carbon only
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Hydrocarbon that contains no rings or double bonds in a molecule
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Displayed formula
Description of a covalently bonded compound or element that uses symbols for atoms and that also shows the covalent bonds between the atoms
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Covalent bond
Shared pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
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Hydrocarbon that contains a double bond (two shared pairs of electrons) between two carbon atoms
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Compound that contains no double bonds in its molecules
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Compound that contains at least on double bond in its molecules
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Addition reaction
Reaction in which two reactants combine to make only one product
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Material whose molecules are made up of many repeated units
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Material whose molecules are the individual structural units of a polymer
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Reaction in which monomer molecules join together to make a polymer
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Addition polymerisation
Polymerisation reaction that only involves addition reactions
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Bond that links two polymer chains together
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Waterproof clothing
Clothing that does not allow rain to pass through it to the inside
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Breathable clothing
Clothing that allows water vapour to pass through but does not allow liquid water (rain) to pass through
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Made up of layers joined together
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Not able to be broken down by the action of bacteria
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Landfill site
Large hole in the ground in which rubbish is dumped
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Can be broken down by microorganisms
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Chemical change
Change in which new substances are formed that have different chemical properties from the original substances
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Very large molecule contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen that is found in living things
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The feel of a material
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Process of changing the structure of a protein molecule by heating (cooking) or chemical treatment
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Large carbohydrate with molecules that are polymers of sugars
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Compound such as sugar or starch that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the general formula CH2O
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Process of breaking up molecules into smaller ones
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Food additive
Substance added to a food to improve its appearance, taste or keeping quality
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Food additive that slows down the reaction of a food with oxygen from the air
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Food colour
Food additive that improves the colour of a food, making it look more attractive
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Flavour enhancer
Additive that improves that taste of food
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Material that enables a stable mixture to be formed between two liquids that would normally separate, such as oil and water
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The part of the molecule that interacts well with water
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The part of the molecule that does not interact well with water but does interact well with oil
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Substances used to change a persons appearance
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Describes a substance that does not occur in nature but has to be made in a laboratory
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Volatile substance that has a pleasant smell
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Compound such as ethyl ethonate made by reacting an organic acid with an alcohol
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Ability of a substance to evaporate
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Organic acid
Acid that has molecules containing a carbon chain
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Mixture of a substance (solute) dissolved in a liquid
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Liquid that dissolves a substance to form a solution
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Substance dissolved in a liquid to form a solution
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Describes a substance that will dissolve in a liquid
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Describes a substance that will not dissolve in a liquid
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Coloured material used in paints
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Mixture of substances used to decorate or protect surfaces
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Emulsion paint
Paint made up of substances forming an emulsion in water
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Oil paint
Paint in which materials are dispersed in oil
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Mixture of substances dispersed throughout a liquid
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Spread throughout
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Describes a substance that changes colour according to the temperature
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Coloured substance the dissolves in a liquid that can be used to colour cloth
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Describes something that gives out light that has been absorbed earlier
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Describes something that emits radiation from the nucleus of an atom
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Transfer of energy across a distance, sometimes in the form of particles given off by the nuclei of radioactive atoms
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Fuel that was formed by the decay of the remains of creatures that lived millions of years ago


Fossil fuel

Card 3


Resource, such as fuel that was made a long time ago and is being used up faster than it is being made now


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Resource, such as fuel, that exists in a certain amount and that is not being replaced as it is used so will eventually run out


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Separation of a mixture into fractions that boil at different temperatures


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


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