Business L01

Decision making
(e.g. when to escalate a complaint). Think about who a teacher can complain to without it affecting their work. Or how important a worker is in the decision making process.
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Authorisation
(e.g. signing of letters, payment authorization). Think about who has the right to sign school letters, make decisions, have access to money and student information.
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Key features of organizational chart
It is largely arranged into functional departments, such as Finance and Marketing. These departments are responsible for one important part of the work of the organization. They use specialist skills in their work and are often efficient as a result
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Key features of organizational chart
There could be conflict between departments, e.g. operations may wish to purchase machinery, but finance do not make the necessary money available
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Key features of organizational chart
Managers working in these departments are called line managers. They have the authority to give orders and to have their decisions put into effect in their department. They directly supervise subordinates in a clear line of authority.
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Key features of organizational chart
It is a hierarchy. This means that there are different levels in the organization. Each level has a different degree of authority. People on the same level of hierarchy have the same degree of authority
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Key features of organizational chart
It is organized into departments, each of which as a particular job or function. As there are different levels of management, there is a chain of command. This is how power and authority are passed down from the top to the lower levels
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Advantages of an organizational chart
The chart shows how everybody is linked together within the organization. All employees are aware of which communication channel is used to reach them with messages and instructions
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Advantages of an organizational chart
Each individual can see their own position within the organization. They can identify who they are accountable to and who they have authority over. Employees can see who they should take orders from
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Advantages of an organizational chart
It shows the links and relationships between different departments within the organization. Everyone is in a department and this gives them a sense of belonging
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Chain of command and span of control
When the chain of command is short, the organization will have 'wider' spans of control.
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Chain of command and span of control
There is no perfect organizational structure. In recent years many organizations have made their structures 'wider' and with a shorter chain of command. In some cases this has been done by removing a whole level of management- called de-layering.
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Advantages of short chains of command
Communication is quicker and more accurate. Each message has fewer levels to pass through before reaching the intended destination
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Advantages of short chains of command
Top managers are less remote from the lower level of the hierarchy. These top managers should be more in touch with people below them as there are fewer management levels to get to know
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Advantages of short chains of command
Spans of control will be wider. This means that each manager is responsible for more subordinates. If superiors have more people to manage, it will encourage managers to delegate more, as their department is larger, they cant work alone
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Advantages of short chains of command
There will be less direct control of each worker and they will feel more trusted, take more decisions by themselves and obtain more job satisfaction
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The authority protocols
There are other departments which do not have a specific function and which employ specialists in particular areas. Examples from a supermarket might include the Economic Forecasting department and the IT department.
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Advantages of short chains of command
Staff managers tend to be well-qualified experts. They often know more about their particular specialist subject that they do about running the business
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Organizational procedures to maintain confidentiality
There are laws in place in Britain to protect the confidentiality and abuse of information whether it is on computer or in paper form. This is the Data Protection Act and it is very clean on the rules for the organizational procedures
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Organizational procedures to maintain confidentiality
Data protection: may include regular backups, restricted access, deleting information after use, not asking excessive questions not related to the data gathering process.
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Storage of data and documentation
There are two ways data can be stored, manual and automatic. Each has their advantages and disadvantages to the customer and the company
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Storage of data and documentation
Manual- storing papers and printouts in a secure locked location, placing it in a safe, key locked room, bars on windows, security guards etc. At a higher level there is bio metric access
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Storage of data and documentation
Electronic- backups, firewalls, SSL, encryption, stored safely, login names and passwords. And at the higher level, bio metrics again
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Implications of breaching confidentiality
The level of breach within an organization can determine the damage done. One lost school report would mean an inconvenience of rewriting it at the best case and an angry parent at the worst case
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Implications of breaching confidentiality
Alternatively information about a new product release before release could cost a company millions in development costs, jobs could be lost and the company prosecuted for the breach
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The confidentiality protocols
The benefits and drawbacks of maintaining information are straightforward reputation vs cost
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Reputation
Customers get upset and leave, customers lose faith, customers fear to place their trust in a company again. It all depends on the importance of the information
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Reputation
If a school loses information, or there is a hack, parents get upset. They may merely voice this upset but keep their child in the school. Whereas if a bank loses account information, money goes missing bu gets replaced
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Cost
Protection costs money, hardware needs replacing, security needs updating, physical security costs as well, guards, bars etc. And these security measures are described against the risks
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BBC-
Used in emails to hide the name of the receivers of a message
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'Need to know'
Restricting access to information from those not privileged to read it (financial information such as wages etc.)
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IT systems
Putting hardware in place to protect information such as scanning paper documents
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Voluntary-
The procedures a company takes to restrict the use of illegally gained materials or information
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Organisational procedures
Restricting access, checking documents, placing their own information in a place or a file format that restrict usage like PDF's. This can include training
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Ethical
The line in the sand drawn by individuals that restrict them from using other people's work for their own purposes. This is ambiguous but can be effective if working in conjunction with a code of practise.
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Codes of practise
Training and rules drawn up by a company that outlines company policy on copyright and measures to abide such as confidentiality agreements
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Legalisation
There are laws in place that all companies have to abide by when it comes to information usage. Failure to comply with these can lead to prosecution which is why codes of practice are put in place
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Copyright
Almost every country has these and includes intellectual as well as actual copyright declarations. These can include the avoidance of plagiarism and the need to quote sources
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Consumer protection
Laws put in place to protect the rights of the consumer such as quality of goods, returns, cooling off periods, rights to privacy, rights to reject services etc
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Equal opportunities
These laws are major when it comes to hiring policies but also in the treatment of staff within a business and how customers are dealt with
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Checking of documents
This can be as time consuming as proof reading hundreds of pages for mistakes or as simple as spell checking a document. This can be spelling, grammar, layout, content, omissions and correctness and accuracy
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Checking of arrangements
When we personally book something we verify it before proceeding but within companies there are additional risks such as double bookings, cancellations, timings of meetings, international issues like time zones or religious days, public holidays.
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Implications of poor checking
This depends on the nature of the document and the value and urgency of the information. Time, money and inconvenience are straightforward but also reputation, expectation and dependence.
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How documents and arrangements should be checked
Visually, technically, or through scheduling
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Why they need to be checked
Quality, importance, reputation or cost
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The benefits, drawbacks and importance of carrying out these checks
Time, money, ability and reputation
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Passwords
Simple, hard to guess, come with rules and can be changed periodically either manually or enforced
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Screen savers
Can be used automatically password lock a computer after a short period of time
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Locking files
Usually set a network level to restrict access through read, write or delete rights
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The inappropriate use of IT equipment and software
Most companies have an AUP (Acceptable Use Policy) in place to restrict staff in their inappropriate use of IT and data. The level of consequence of inappropriate use varies depending on the level of data accessed or abused
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Health and safety legalisation
In Britain there is the Health and Safety Work Act that protect workers rights. Stipulations include the clothes necessary for the job, length or work before a break, amount of working hours, storage of chemicals, and tripping risks
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Equal opportunities legalisation
Protects the rights of staff against discrimination because of their beliefs, gender, age, ability, race, size etc.
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Hours-
The agreed working hours and compensation for additional hours worked
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Leave-
Agreed payments or time in lieu for an employee when they go on holiday, sick, or for other arrangements
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Paternity/maternity leave-
An agreed time period and sum of money (full pay, half pay etc.) For maternity (mother) or paternity (father)
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Period of notice
When a company needs to reduce staffing
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List of duties and responsibilities
An agreed list of things a member of staff does as part of their employment, often used for what is not on the list
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Punctuality
Being on time
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Appearance and dress code
Varies from job to job but consider what a teacher is expected to wear.
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Use of appropriate language
Again varies from job to job but consider the average teachers day and how they are asked to behave
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Professional behaviour
Include how employers would expect employees to respond for example, open and honest in business dealings with stakeholders and third parties e.g. in line with anti-bribery and corruption policy, reporting in sick, contact work if unable to attend
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

(e.g. signing of letters, payment authorization). Think about who has the right to sign school letters, make decisions, have access to money and student information.

Back

Authorisation

Card 3

Front

It is largely arranged into functional departments, such as Finance and Marketing. These departments are responsible for one important part of the work of the organization. They use specialist skills in their work and are often efficient as a result

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

There could be conflict between departments, e.g. operations may wish to purchase machinery, but finance do not make the necessary money available

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Managers working in these departments are called line managers. They have the authority to give orders and to have their decisions put into effect in their department. They directly supervise subordinates in a clear line of authority.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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