Breast & Mammary Gland

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  • Created by: Becca
  • Created on: 29-12-13 18:02
What are the breast, areola & ******?
Breast: highly modified area of skin, specialised sweat glands produce nutritious secretions under hormonal influences. Aerola: area of melanin pigmentation, sebaceous glands & pressure receptors. Nipple: pigmented raised skin, darken after pregnancy
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What is the anatomy of the breast?
Mammary/alveolar gland within 12-20 distinct lobules, each lobe has its own duct system & separate opening to the ****** via the lacteiferous duct. A septa exits between lobes, attached to skin by fibrocollagenous bands (Cooper's suspensory ligament)
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What do the ductal systems end in? What changes happen at pregnancy?
Each ductal system ends in a cluster of blind ending terminal ductules. These ductules will transform into alveoli at pregnancy and produce milk at lactation
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How are progesterone & oestrogen involved in pregnancy?
Progesterone: high placental secretion, maintains myometrium, prevents endometrial shedding, stimulates breast development, suppresses ovulation (-ve feedback), inhibits immuno-rejection of embryo. Oestrogen: proliferation of mammary tissue
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What breast changes happen in pregnancy?
Increase in vascularity & melanin pigmentation, hyperplastic proliferation of terminal ductile epithelium & vacuoles in luminal epithelial cells. 2/3rd trimester: increase lipid rich proteinaceous secretion (not true milk) and support tissue
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How is milk produced in the lactating breast?
Milk fat synthesized in sER of alveolar->membrane bound droplets (increase size towards lumen), pinched off & released. Milk protein passes through Golgi, vacuoles released by exocytosis. Both need prolactin receptor activation on surface of alveolar
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What happens during pregnancy to prepare for postnatal nutrition?
Oestrogen, progesterone & placental prolactin are involved in increasing the breast & alveoli size. Prolactin stimulates lactogenesis, but milk production inhibited in pregnancy.
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What happens after parturition to prepare for postnatal nutrition?
Drop in levels of oestrogen & progesterone allows dominance of pituitary prolactin. This starts lactogenesis. Breast now more sensitive to prolactin. Thus alveoli become enlarged & functional. Prolactin stimulates alveolar cells to produce milk
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What two reflexes are involved in synthesis of breast milk?
Suckling induced: sensory info -> prolactin release (anterior pituitary), ****** stimulation essential, strength/duration influence prolactin levels. Let down: oxytocin causes contraction of myoepithelial cells to induce expulsion of milk into ducts
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What is the composition of breast milk?
Colostrum: yellow/creamy fluid, contains more protein/fat-soluble vit/minerals/high levels immnoglobulins. Transitional milk: more calories/lactose/water-soluble vit/proteins/elevated fat. Mature milk: high % H2O/lactose/fat/AA/minerals/vit A,D etc
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What are the immunologic advantages of breast milk?
Acquired immunity, provides varying degrees of protection e.g. secretory IgA has antiviral/bacteria/genic-inhibiting properties. Immunoglobulins, lysozyme & lactoferrin leads to modulation of proinflammatory response in sterile gut
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What are some disadvantages of breastfeeding?
Drugs/alcohol taken by mother transmit through breast milk, jaundice from milk may interrupt breastfeeding, mum personal aversion or poor nutritional/physical/mental health may be contradiction to nursing, transmission of HIV etc
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Card 2

Front

What is the anatomy of the breast?

Back

Mammary/alveolar gland within 12-20 distinct lobules, each lobe has its own duct system & separate opening to the ****** via the lacteiferous duct. A septa exits between lobes, attached to skin by fibrocollagenous bands (Cooper's suspensory ligament)

Card 3

Front

What do the ductal systems end in? What changes happen at pregnancy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are progesterone & oestrogen involved in pregnancy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What breast changes happen in pregnancy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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