Brain + Neuropsychology

  • Created by: Jj Selg
  • Created on: 05-11-18 18:29
What is the nervous system?
The nervous system is a complicated network of cells that pass information around the body.
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What is the function of the nervous system?
1. To collect and respond to information in the environment and control the body's organs and cells.
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What are the subdivisions of the nervous system?
Central Nervous System, Peripheral Nervous System.
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What does the peripheral nervous system divide into?
The Autonomic Nervous System + The Somatic Nervous System.
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What does the autonomic nervous system divide into?
The Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System.
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What is the central nervous system's function?
The area where complex commands and decisions are made.
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What is the peripheral nervous system's function?
Supports the central nervous system by receiving and sending messages to it.
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What is the function of the autonomic nervous system?
The system controls automatic processes.
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What are the two main areas of the central nervous system?
The Brain + The Spinal Cord.
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What is the brain divided into? What is the brain used for?
The brain is divided into the left and right hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. It is the centre of conscious awareness, and where decision making takes place.
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Describe the spinal cord. What does the spinal cord divide into?
The spinal cord begins ar the base of the brain, extending down to the spine. The spinal cord carries incoming + outgoing messages to the brain.
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Describe how the ANS acts; what it controls.
The ANS acts involuntary, we cannot control it even if we try. It controls vital life functions such as the heart rate.
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Describe how the SNS acts; what it controls.
The SNS controls the voluntary movement of our muscles and organs. Sensory information is relayed to and from the CNS and movements are chosen in response. Some movements are involuntary, known as reflexes.
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What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the process by which the body maintains a constant and a balanced internal state, controlled by the ANS.
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Describe the Sympathetic Nervous System ("Fight Or Flight") . What are the symptoms, and what does it respond to?
The sympathetic nervous system is activated when a person is in the state of physiological arousal. It is an evolutionary response to deal with stressful solutions.
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Describe the parasympathetic Nervous System ("Rest and Digest") . What are the symptoms, and what does it respond to?
The parasympathetic nervous system is activated once the threat or stressor has passed. Symptoms may be that sweating stops, digestion is stimulated and breathing slows down. It acts only once the sympathetic nervous system has been activated.
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What is the first stage to the fight and flight response?
The threat is detected. The hypothalamus identifies a potential threat and instructs the sympathetic division of the ANS to act.
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What is the second stage to the fight and flight response?
The excitatory hormone adrenaline is released from the adrenal gland and enters the bloodstream.
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What is the third stage to the fight and flight response?
Adrenaline gives us the energy to either confront the threat (fight) or run away (flight).
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What is the fourth stage to the fight or flight response?
After the threat passes, the parasympathetic division of the ANS kicks in, returning the body to homeostasis.
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What are the stages of the James-Lange Theory Of Emotion?
Event -> Arousal -> Interpretation -> Emotion
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Explain the stage of event.
A particular event from the environment is perceived as a stressor or threat by the hypothalamus and activates the sympathetic division of the ANS.
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Explain the stage of arousal.
Adrenaline is released, which leads to the physiological arousal associated with the fight or flight response - the body is now ready to attack or run away.
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Explain the stage of interpretation.
It is now up to the brain to interpret what this arousal means - whether it is a threat or just excitement.
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Explain the stage of emotion.
Depending on how we interpret the stressor affects emotion. This could be fear, excitement or love.
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What is a strength of the James-Lange theory of emotion?
There are real-life examples of emotions following physiological arousal. Emotional states seem to follow physiological arousal in cases such as phobias. Emotion and avoidance occur as a result of physiological arousal, supporting the theory.
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What is a weakness? (Hint: Challenged by other Theories)
The Cannon-Bard theory suggests that emotions and arousal occur at the same time, like someone being embarrassed whilst blushing. Cannon argues the p.a. may also happen in the absence of emotion. Therefore the J-L theory canno
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of the nervous system?

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1. To collect and respond to information in the environment and control the body's organs and cells.

Card 3

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What are the subdivisions of the nervous system?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What does the peripheral nervous system divide into?

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Card 5

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What does the autonomic nervous system divide into?

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