biopsych ; neurons + synaptic transmission

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STRUCTURE + FUNCTION OF NEURONS
SDGD
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what do neurons provide the nervous system with?
primary means communication
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- types of neuron
dfgf
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how many?
3
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called?
motor neuron / relay neuron / sensory neuron
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- structure of a neuron
df
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cell body includes a?
nucleus
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which contains what?
genetic material of the cell
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what are the branch-like structures that protrude called?
dendrites
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what do these do?
carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons toward cell bod
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what does the opposite?
axon
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axon is covered in a fatty layer of?
myelin sheath
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that does what two things?
protects axin / speeds up electrical transmission
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what would hapen if myelin sheath was continuous?
slow down electrical transmission
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myelin sheath is segmented by gaps called?
nodes of ranvier
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why does this speed?
forces impulse to jump across
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finally at end of axon are?
terminal buttons
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- electrical transmission (firing of a neuron)
g
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@ resting state what is the charge of the neron compared to outside?
negative
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when activated by stimulus, neuron becomes positively charged for how long?
split-second
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causing what to occur?
action potential
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this creates what that travels down the neuron?
electrical impulse
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SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION
FDBD
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- chemical transmission (synapses)
sdgd
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each neuron is separated from the next by a?
synapse
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what is the space between two neurons called?
synaptic cleft
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and what is before that?
presynaptic terminal
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and postsynaptic?
receptor site
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synaptic transmission tramsnits signals between neurons how?
chemically
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when electrical impulse reaches end of neuron it triggers the release of what?
neurotransmitter
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from where?
synaptic vesicles
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- neurotransmitter
dgd
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what is a neurotransmitter?
chemical that diffuses across synapse to next neuron
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once neurotransmitter crosses gap its taken up by?
postsynaptic receptor sites
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what happens here?
chem converted back to eletric
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- excitation and inhibition
dfgdf
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neurotrans will have one of which two effects on neighbouring neuron?
excitatory / inhibitory
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for instance serotonin causes what?
inhibition
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bc does what to neyron?
makes negatively charged + less likely to fire
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Card 2

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what do neurons provide the nervous system with?

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primary means communication

Card 3

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- types of neuron

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Card 4

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how many?

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Card 5

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called?

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