Biology Unit 1 Revision Cards (2)

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  • Created by: Alisha
  • Created on: 13-07-14 15:04
Lungs
Specialised surfaces which ensure efficient gas exchange between air and blood, lobed structures made up of highly branched tubules, called bronchioles ending in alveoli
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Trachea
Flexible airway supported by rings of cartilage, produce mucus to stop dirt getting into the lungs
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Cilia
Short, hairlike organelles which move the mucus from the trachea up the throat from which it passes down the esophagus into the stomach
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Bronchi
Two divisions of the trachea leading to each lung
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Bronchioles
Series of branching subdivisions of the bronchi. Muscle lined with epithelial cells. Muscles constrict to control airflow
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Alveoli
Airsacs on the end of the bronchioles, contain collagen and elastic fibres and lined with epithelium. Gas exhange surface.
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Ventilation
Movement of air in and out of the lungs or breathing
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Inspiration
Inhalation which happens when the atmospheric pressure is more than that in the lungs
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Expiration
Exhalation which happens when the pressure in the lungs is higher than the atmospheric pressure
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Internal intercoastal muscles
Muscles towards the inside which contract to lead to expiration
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External intercoastal muscles
Muscles towards the outside, contraction leads to inspiration
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Tidal Volume
Volume of air normally taken in at each breath when the body is at rest
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Pulmonary Ventilation
= tidal volume x ventilation rate (in dm3min-1) total volume of air that is moved into the lungs during one minute
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TB
Tuberculosis, caused by bacteria transmitted by airdroplets or infected cattle, causing coughing, tiredness and loss of appetite.
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Pulmonary fiberosis
Disease which occurs when scar tissue forms on the lungs causing them to thicken, meaning gas exchange is less efficient and reduced elasticity. Leading to: coughing, shortness of breath, fatigue and chest pair.
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Asthma
Allergic reaction to an allergen such as dust which causes airways to become inflamed leading to shortness of breath and tight chest
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Emphysema
Causes the elastic tissue to become permanently stretched leading to the air not being forced out of the lungs. The surface area of the lungs is also decreased.
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Atrium
Thin walled and elastic upper chamber of the heart, which pumps blood into the ventricles
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Ventricle
Thicker walled lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood to the lungs or the rest of the body
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Atrioventricular Valves
Between the atria and ventricules, prevents the backflow of blood when the ventricles contract.
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Aorta
Blood vessel connected to the left ventricle and carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except the lungs
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Vena cava
Blood vessel connected to the right atrium and brings deoxygenated blood back from the tissues of the body
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Pulmonary artery
Blood vessel connected to the right ventricle and carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs where its oxygen is replenished and CO2 removed
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Pulmonary Vein
Blood vessel connected to left atrium and brings oxygenated blood back from the lungs
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Coronary Arteries
Arteries which stem from the aorta and supply blood to the heart
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Myocardial infarction
Also known as heart attack, results from the interruption of the blood supply to the heart muscle, causing damage to an area of the heart with consequent disruption to its function
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Diastole
The stage in the cardiac cycle when the heart muscle relaxes
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Atrial systole
The stage in the cardiac cycle in which the atria contracts
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Ventricular Systole
The stage in the cardiac cycle in which the ventricle contracts
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Semi lunar valves
In the aorta and pulomary artery. These prevent the backflow of blood into the ventricles when the recoil action of the elastic walls of these vessels create a greater pressure in the vessels than in the ventricles
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Pocket valves
In the veins that occur throughout the venous system. Ensure that when veins are squeezed blood flows back to the heart rather than away.
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Cardiac output
= heart rate x stroke volume,(measured in dm3min-1). Volume of blood pumped by one ventricle of the heart in 1 minute
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Heart rate
The rate at which the heart beats
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Stroke volume
Volume of blood pumped out at each beat
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SAN
Sinoatrial node - distinct group of cells in the wall of the right atrium which send out a wave of electrical activity which spreads out across the atria causing it to contract
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AVN
Atrioventricular Node - second group of cells which lie between the atria, convey the wave of electrical activity between ventricles along the muscle fibres after a short delay
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Atheroma
Fatty deposit that forms within the wall of an artery
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Thrombosis
Atheroma forms a rough surface that interrupts the smooth flow of blood, which may result in a clot which reduces the supply of blood and possibly killing tissues due to lack of oxygen.
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Aneurysm
The weak points of artery walls swell with blood (aneurysm). These may burst leading to a hemorrhage and loss of blood. Stroke is caused by a brain aneurysm
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HDLs
High density lipoproteins - remove cholesterol from tissues and transport it to the liver for excretion
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LDLs
Low density lipoproteins - transport cholesterol from liver to tissues
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Immunity
The means by which the body protects itself from infection
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Non-specific defence mechanism
Mechanism which doesn't distinguish between one type of pathogen and another but responds the same to all of them. They take the form of phagocytosis and physical barriers e.g. skin
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Specific defence mechanism
Mechanism which does distinguish between different pathogens. Takes form of humoral and cell mediated responses.
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Lymphocyte
Types of white blood cell responsible for the immune response, they become activated by antigens. There are twos types T and B.
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Phagocyte
Type of white blood cell that carries out phagocytosis
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Phagosome
Vesicle formed when phagocyte engulfs a pathogen
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Phagocytosis
Mechanism by which cells engulf particles to form a vesicle
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Histamine
Substance released on tissue injury that causes dilation of blood and inflammation
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Antigen
A molecule that triggers an immune response by lymphocytes
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B cells
Type of white blood cell that is produced and matures within bone marrow and produce antibodies as part of their role in immunity
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T cells
Type of white blood cell that is produced in the bone marrow but matures in the thymus gland. They coordinate the immune response and kill infected cells
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Antigen presenting cells
Cells which have been invaded by a virus but managed to present some of the viral anitgens on the cell surface membrane
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Cell mediated immunity
Immune response by T cells (which only respond to anitgens that are attached to a body cell)
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Humoral immunity
Immune response involving antibodies (which are soluble in body fluids or humor)
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Antibodies
A protein produced by lymphocytes in response to the presence of the appropriate antigen
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Mitosis
The type of nuclear division in which the daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell
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Plasma cells
Cells which are derived from B cells and secrete antibodies
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Memory cells
Derived from B cells, live for decades and circulate in the blood. If they encounter the same pathogen they divide rapidly and develop into more plasma and memory cells.
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Primary/Secondary immune response
Response when the pathogen enters for the first/second time
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Antigenic variability
The antigens the virsuses produce are constantly changing
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Heavy/light chain
Chains that antibodies are made polypeptide, heavy refers to the longer chain and light to the shorter chain
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Variable/ constant region
Binding site/rest of the antibody
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Antigen-antibody complex
When an antigen binds to the binding site of an antibody
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Monoclonal antibodies
An antibody produced by a single clone of cells or cell line and consisting of identical antibody molecules
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Polyclonal antibodies
Mixture of antibodies often recognisning multiple epitopes on the antigen
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Immunoassay
A procedure for detecting or measuring specific proteins or other substances through their properties as antigens/antibodies
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Passive immunity
Produced by the introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source, produces short lived immunity as they aren't produced by the individual so aren't replaced.
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Active immunity
Produced by stimulation of antibodies by immune system, produces long lasting immunity
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Vaccination
Weakened or inactive form of pathogen put into the body to stimulate antibody production meaning the individual will become immune
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Flexible airway supported by rings of cartilage, produce mucus to stop dirt getting into the lungs

Back

Trachea

Card 3

Front

Short, hairlike organelles which move the mucus from the trachea up the throat from which it passes down the esophagus into the stomach

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Two divisions of the trachea leading to each lung

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Series of branching subdivisions of the bronchi. Muscle lined with epithelial cells. Muscles constrict to control airflow

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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