Biology- Unit 1- Heart & Heart Disease

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  • Created by: FireDwarf
  • Created on: 30-11-13 13:15
What does the left hand side of the heart (pump) deal with?
Oxygenated blood
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What does the right hand side of the heart (pump) deal with?
deoxygenated blood
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What is a atrium?
Thin walled elastic structure which contracts, pumping blood the short distance to the ventricle.
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what is a ventricle?
Thick musclular walled elastic structure that contracts to pump blood to the rest of the body/lungs.
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Why do we have 2 seperate pumps?
Blood needs to pass through capillaries to reach the lungs, in order to present a large surface area for gas exchange. This means there is a huge drop in pressure. The blood flow to the rest of the body wou;d therefore be slow and unefficient.
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We therefore need to return the blood to the heart agian for a second pump, to be able to provide the pressure needed to reach the long distance (1.5m) to the rest of the body.
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Why does the right ventricle have a thinner wall then the left?
Because it pumps to the lungs while the left side must pump oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, which needs a higher pressure (longer distance).
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What are the atrioventricular valves?
They prevent the backflow of blood into the atrium when the ventricles contract.
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Left atrioventricular? Other name?
2 cup shaped flaps left side of the heat , bicuspid
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Right atrioventricular? Other name?
3 cup shaped flaps, right side of the heart, tricuspid.
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What do the ventricles do?
pump blood away from the heart and into arteries.
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What do the atria do?
Recieve blood from the veins.
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What is the aorta?
Connected to left ventricle, carries oxygenated blood to the body (except lungs)
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Vena cava?
Right atrium, carries blood from tissues of the body which is deoxygenated
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Pulmonary artery?
right ventricle, Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs. Unusual for an artery to carry deoxygenated.
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Pulmonary vein?
Connected to left atrium, brings oxygenated blood back from the lungs.
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How does the heart get oxygen?
Has its own blood vessels, coronary artieries, branch off aorta.
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How many cardiac cycles do we undergo each minute?
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What is contraction of the heart called? What is relaxation?
Systole & diastole.
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How does diastole occur?
Blood returns to the atria through the pumonary vein and the vena cava. Atria fills, causing a rise in pressure. This rise in pressure causes the atrioventricular valves to open. Blood passes into ventricles
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Muscular walls of the atria and the ventricles are relaxed at this stage. Ventricle wall relaxed causes low pressure in ventricle. Pressure is lower in the ventricle then atria as a result
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This causes the semi-lunar valves to close (dub sound)
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Atria systole?
Muslce of the atrial walls contract, forcing remaining blood out into the ventricle. Blood pumped short distance, not thick walls. Muslce of ventricles remain relaxed.
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Ventricular systole?
After they fill with blood, the muscles contract. Increases blood pressure. Force close the atrioventricular valves, prevening backflow.. With these closed, pressure keeps increasing. Force open the semi-lunar valves.
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Pushes blood into the pumonary artery and the aorta.
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Why are valves important?
because they prevent the backflow of blood and ensure it flows in the right location.
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How are they designed to work?
They are deisnged up open when the diffrence in blood pressure either side of them favours the movement of blood in the right direction.
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artrium and the ventricles. Prevent backflow of blood when ventricles contract. Ensures blood moves into the aorta and pumonary atery rather then back to atria.
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Prevent backflow into ventricle when recoil o the elastic walls create greater pressure in the vessels then ventricle.
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Pocket values?
Veins in the venous system. Ensure blood flows back to heart when they are squeezed.
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What is the cardiac muscle?
Myogenic (contractions is iniated from inside itsself rather then nervous impulses)
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Where does it start? Wnere is it located?
the SAN - right atrium.
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What is it often refered to as?
The pacemaker
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What are the sequence of invesnts in cardiac system control?
SAN sends out electricity activity across both atria causing contraction of the atria. The atrioventricular septum stops it flowing to ventricle. Wave then passes through the AVN which lies between the atria.
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AFTER A SHORT DELAY, this sends out a wave of electrical activity between the ventricles tthrough the bundle of his (fibres)
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Why? and continue.
because if it sent directly to ventricles, would contract downwards. want upwards. Bundle conducts it to base of ventricle, passing it on to the smaller fibres and causing the ventricles to contract upwards.
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What is CHD?
Cornary heart disease
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What is Atheroma?
Fatty deposit that forms within the wall of an artery. Fatty streaks accumilate of white blood cells that take up LDL's.
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These streaks enlarge, forming atheromatous plaque. Made up of cholestrol, firbres and dead muscle cells.
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What occurs with this?
They bluge into the lumen of the artery, causing it to narrow, blood flow reduced.
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What does it increase the risk of?
Thrombosis and aneurysm.
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What is Thrombosis?
When an anthroma breaks through the endothelium of the blood vessel, it forms a rough surface which interupts the smooth flow of blood.
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What does this cause?
This can cause the formation of a thrombus/blood clot which then can block a blood vessel. This reduces blood flow and can deprive a region of tissue from glucose and oxygen.
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What is an aneruysm?
When a atheroma leads to the formation of a thrombus, then the artery wall can also be weakened. This causes it to swell like a balloon, called an aneursym. This can then burst, leading to hamerage. loss of blood therefore.
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Myocardial infarction?
Heart attack. Reduced supply of oxygen to the muscle of the heart. Blockage of cornoary artery/aorta. Heart stops beating therefore.
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Name the risk factors assosiated with conoary heart disease?
Smoking,High blood pressure,blood chlorseterol.,diet
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Carbon monoxide- combines with the haemogolbin in the blood, therefore reducing oxygen carrying capability. Heart has to pump harder / less oxygen gets to the heart.
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Stimulates adreniline which causes faster heart beat.
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Heart must work harder to pump blood into the artieries. Artieries also more likely develop anuerysm.
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Blood Chloresterol?
HDL?- remove cholersterol from tissues and transfer to the liver, protet artieries agianst heart disease. LDR- liver to tissues, help development of antheroma.
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Card 2


What does the right hand side of the heart (pump) deal with?


deoxygenated blood

Card 3


What is a atrium?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is a ventricle?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why do we have 2 seperate pumps?


Preview of the front of card 5
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