Biology Module 2

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Why are classification systems important?
They help us understand how organisms are related (evolutionary relationships) and how they interact with each other (ecological relationships)
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What two types of classification systems are there?
Natural - based on evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms / Artificial - based on appearance, not genes, used to identify organisms
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'King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages' stands for what?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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What is the difference between 'genus' and 'species'?
A genus is a group of closely related species but a species is a group of organisms which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
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Why is it difficult to classify organisms?
Many organisms share characteristics of multiple groups
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Why do classification systems change over time?
They may have to adapt to newly found species which don't fit in the categories e.g Archaeopteryx / DNA sequencing will genetic differences in groups disproving which may disprove what we previously thought e.g two different species = closely related
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What are evolutionary trees used for?
They can show us how closely related different species are to each other. They show common ancestors - the more recent the common ancestor, the more closely related the two species are, the more characteristics they'll share
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What problems are there with classifying organisms?
Asexual Reproduction - No interbreeding so doesn't fit species definition / Hybrids - They're infertile and so aren't a new species making them difficult to class / Evolution - Organisms change over time, classification may change, old species to new
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What is the system used by scientists to name species?
Binomial - two part name (genus and species)
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Why might it be difficult to draw a pyramid of biomass?
If an organism feeds at more than one trophic level, it's difficult to draw out
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How is energy lost?
Through egestion, excretion and respiration. This material and energy loss is why we get biomass pyramids - biomass is lost along the way
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What is the equation for efficiency?
Energy Efficiency = ( Energy Available at the Next Level / Energy Available at the Previous Level ) x 100
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What is a niche?
a role in an ecosystem - it depends on where they live and what they feed on
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What is interspecific competition?
Where organisms compete for resources against individuals of another species
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What is intraspecific competition?
Where organisms compete for resources against individuals of the same species
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Why are predator-prey cycles always out of phase?
It takes time for one population to respond to the changes in the other e.g it takes time to reproduce
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What is a parasitic relationship?
This is where a parasite lives off a host. Parasites take what is required but do not benefit the host but instead often harms them
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What is a mutualistic relationship?
This is a relationship where both organisms benefit each other
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What is an adaptation?
It is a feature which makes an organism better suited to that environment. Organisms that are adapted to their habitat are better able t compete for resources meaning they are more likely to survive and pass the adaptation onto their offspring
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What is a specialist?
These are organisms highly adapted to survive in a specific habitat e.g panda
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What is a generalist?
These are organisms adapted to survive in a range of habitats e.g rat
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What are extremophiles?
These are organism that are adapted to tolerate extreme conditions such as high or low pH or temperature
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Give examples of extremophiles
Some bacteria have enzymes that don't denature until extremely high temperatures and so have a higher optimum temperature / Others have anti-freeze proteins which prevents ice crystals forming in cells and being damaged
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How do anatomical adaptations help reduce heat loss?
A thick coat or blubber helps insulate the body and trap heat in / Having a large size and compact body shape gives a smaller surface are:volume ratio - it means less body heat can be lost through the skin surface
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What is counter current heat exchange?
Penguins - This is where blood vessels pass close to each other and so allow heat to transfer between them. Warm blood in the arteries warm up cold blood in the veins. This keeps feet cold and prevents cold blood cooling down the rest of the body
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How do behavioural adaptations help reduce heat loss?
Many species migrate to warmer weather avoiding the cold / Other species hibernate to save energy from finding food and keeping warm / Some species huddle to retain heat (penguins)
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How do behavioural adaptations increase heat loss and reduce heat gain?
Staying in shade/underground minimises the amount of heat their bodies gain from the surroundings / Nocturnal species reduce heat gain - nighttime is cooler / Bathing in water increases heat loss as water evaporates, transfer of heat to surroundings
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How do anatomical adaptations increase heat loss?
Animals are often small, large surface area:volume ratio means more heat can escape through skin / Large (thin) ears increase SA:V ratio and allow blood vessels near the surface / Storing fat in one part of the body, stops body being too insulated
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How are desert plants adapted to lose as little water as possible to their environment?
Have small SA:V ratio to minimise water lost from the surface / Thick waxy layer (cuticle) and spines instead of leaves / Store water in stems allows them to survive extreme drought / shallow but extensive roots to absorb water over a large area
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How are desert animals adapted to lose as little water as possible to their surroundings?
Specialised kidneys that produce very concentrated urine (very low water content) / No sweat glands prevents water lost through sweating / More time underground - air contains more moisture than on the surface
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How did Darwin come up with the idea of survival of the fittest?
After seeing that species showed a wide variation, he thought that they must compete for similar resources . He then realised that those better adapted would be the more successful competitors and were more likely to survive
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What is the theory of survival of the fittest?
The best adapted organisms would be more successful competitors and so would be more likely to survive. The successing organisms would survive to reproduce and pass on their adaptations to their offspring.
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What happened to the least adapted species?
The would be less likely to survive and reproduce. Therefore it was less likely that their characteristics would pass onto the next generation. Over time more successful adaptations become more common in the population and the species evolves
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How has modern technology helped prove Darwin's theory?
Darwin couldn't explain why new characteristics appeared or how beneficial adaptations were passed on. Now we know adaptations are controlled by genes (DNA 50yrs later) and new adaptations arise due to mutations. Parents pass on genes to offspring
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What is speciation?
When organisms change so much due to natural selection that a new species is formed. Populations of the same species have changed enough that they are reproductively isolated. Ca be caused by geographic isolation
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How does speciation happen?
A physical barrier divides a species, the two populations cannot mix. Different mutations create new features. Natural selection. Conditions differ either side of barrier so features differ. Eventualy so different, they can't breed together
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What were the arguments against Darwin's theory of natural selection?
It went against religious beliefs about how life developed - it showed we didn't need a creator / Darwin couldn't explain why new features appeared or how they're inherited / There wasn't enough evidence to convince scientists, no other studies
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What was Lamarck's theory of evolution?
He believed that if a charcteristic was used a lot then it would become more developed. These acquired characteristics were then passed onto offspring
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Why didn't people belive Lamarck's theory?
Acquired characteristics didn't have a genetic basis so they're unable to be passed onto the next generation
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Why has Darwin's theory now been accepted?
The theory has been debated and tested and no-one has conclusively proven it to be wrong / The theory offers a plausible explanation for so many observations of plants and animals e.g physical or behavioural patterns
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Describe the Carbon Cycle
Carbon is taken out of the air by photosynthesis. Carbon from CO2 is converted into sugars, carbs, fats and proteins. Animals eat plants and so carbon. P+A respiration releases CO2. P+A die, decomposers release CO2. Fossil fuels burned, release CO2
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Why does decomposition slow in waterlogged or acidic soil?
Decomposers need oxygen to respire and produce energy-this is lacking in waterlogged areas and so decomposers have less energy and work slower / Extremes of pH slow down the reproduction of decomposers or outright kills them
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How is carbon recycled in the sea?
Shells are made of carbonates. Whe organisms die, the shells fall to the floor and form limestone rock. The carbon is released into atmosphere during volcanic eruptions or when weathered down / Oceans are known as carbon sinks and absorb a lot of CO2
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Describe the Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen fixing bacteria R+S and lightning fix nitrates into soil. Plant use it for growth which is eaten by animals. Decomposers break down P+A and urea into NH3. Nitrifying bacteria turns this into nitrates in soil. Denitrifying bacteria makes N2
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Describe the mutualistic relationship between legume plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria
NFB live in the nodules of legume plants. The bacteria get food/sugars from the plant. The plant gets nitrates from the bacteria to make proteins.
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What is the term to describe the rise in human population?
exponential
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How does the increase in human population increase global warming? What are the effects?
We use more fossil fuels and so are releasing more CO2 which is a greehouse gas. If this increases, sea levels will rise, weather will become less predictable and agriculture will fall. Companies are trying to reduce their emissions
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How does the increase in human population increase acid rain? What are the effects?
When FF and waste materials is burnt, it releases SO2. This reacts with water to make sulfuric acid which falls as acid rain. This damages soils, trees, limestone, building and statues. It can make lakes acidic.
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Why is it bad if lakes become acidic?
Acidic lakes have severe consequences on the lake's ecosystem. Many organisms are sensitive to changes in pH and cannot survive in more acidic conditions. Many P+A will die
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How does the increase in human population help the ozone depletion? What are the effects?
We released CFCs through aerosols, fridges and air-cons. This breaks down ozone. This allows more harmful UV rays to reach Earth's surface. This increases the risk of skin cancer e.g Australia. It may kill plankton disrupting the sea food chain
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What is an indicator species?
A species that shows pollution levels by its presence or lack of it
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Give examples of species that can only live in unpolluted areas
Lichens monitor air quality - they get damaged by air pollution. The cleaner the air, the greater the diversity / Mayfly larvae monitor water quality - they can't live in dirty water. The cleaner the water, more more mayfly larvae that survive
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Give examples of species that can only live in polluted areas
Water lice, rat-tailed maggots and sludgeworms indicate polluted water. Rat-tailed maggots and sludgeworms indicate a very high level of pollution
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How can you measure pollution?
Indicator species - check their presence, absence and count numerical value from areas, compare. See how polluted an area is / Sensitive instruments (satellites) - measure concentrations of chemical pollutants in samples air or water (even ozone).
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What are the advantages of using living methods to measure pollution levels?
Quick / Cheap / Easy / No highly trained workers are needed
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What are the disadvantages of using living methods to measure pollution levels?
Not always reliable - Factors other than pollution can influence the survival of indicator species
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What are the advantages of using non-living methods to measure pollution levels?
Reliable, numerical data / Easy to compare / Exact pollutants can be identified
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What are the disadvantages of using non-living methods to measure pollution levels?
Expensive (equipment and workers)
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What factors may cause animals to become endangered?
Limited habitats - hard to find resources when there are few suitable habitats / Few Individuals - difficult to mate, less genetic variation / Genetic variation - low levels means population is less likely to adapt and survive
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How do you evaluate a conservation programme?
See if there's enough genetic variation / the viability of populations - should be able to reproduce without inbreeding / The availability of suitable habitats / The interaction between species should be like a natural environment
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How do conservation programmes benefit humans and wildlife?
They protect human food supply e.g fish / Ensures minimal damage to food chain - conserving one species helps others survive / Provides future medicines - we could miss valuable medicine if plants became extinct / Cultural aspects + heritage
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What is the definition of sustainable development?
Providing for the needs of today's increasing population without harming the environment
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Give examples of sustainable develpoment
Fishing quotas - prevents certain fish becoming extinct, they'll be there for future genrations / Logging companies must plant new trees for the ones felled / Education make more people aware and so may help more
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What commercial values do whales have?
Tourist attractions / Meat and oil can be used / cosmetics from their intestines
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Why is it hard to restrict whaling?
It is difficult to make sure everyone is sticking to the agreement / IWC cannot enforce any punishment to those caught as a result illegal whaling still goes on
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What are the different views on whales in captivity?
Less space and no freedom - people think they'll be happier in wild / captive whales increase awareness / Captive breeding can increase numbers / Research can help us understand whales' needs better. We don't fully understand them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What two types of classification systems are there?

Back

Natural - based on evolutionary relationships and genetic similarities between organisms / Artificial - based on appearance, not genes, used to identify organisms

Card 3

Front

'King Prawn Curry Or Fat Greasy Sausages' stands for what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the difference between 'genus' and 'species'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is it difficult to classify organisms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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