Biology (B2) - Enzymes

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  • Created by: Roma
  • Created on: 20-12-13 18:04
What are protein molecules made of?
Long chains of amino acids. They are folded to produce specific shapes, which depends on its function.
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What can proteins be?
Structural components of tissues, such a muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts.
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What are enzymes?
Biological catalysts which speed up reactions. They control chemical reactions in cells. They are large proteins and the shape is vital for its function. This shape has an active site where other molecules can fit.
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Where can the substrate be held?
In the active site and either be connected to another molecule or be broken down.
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What can enzymes do?
Build large molecules from many smaller ones, change one molecules into another, break down large molecules into smaller ones.
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Why do enzyme reactions take place faster when its warmer?
At higher temperatures, the molecules move around more quickly and so collide with each other more often and with more energy.
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What happens if the temperature gets too hot?
The enzyme stops working because the active site changes shape. The enzyme becomes denatured.
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What happens if the pH is too acidic or alkaline?
The enzyme stops working because the active site changes shape. The enzyme becomes denatured.
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Where do enzymes work?
Outside the body cells.
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Where are digestive enzymes produced?
By specialised cells in glands and in the lining of the gut. The enzymes pass out of the cells and come into contact with the food.
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What does digestion involve?
The breakdown of large, insoluble molecules into smaller soluble ones.
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What is amylase?
A carbohydrase produced by the salivary glands, the pancreas and the small intestine. It catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and small intestine.
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What is protease?
An enzyme produced by the stomach, the pancreas and the small intestine. Protease catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and the small intestine.
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What is lipase?
An enzyme produced by the pancreas and small intestine. It catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol.
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Where do protease enzymes work best?
In acid conditions. Glands in the stomach wall produce hydrochloric acid to create very acidic conditions.
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Where do amylase and lipase work?
In the small intestine. They work best when the conditions are slightly alkaline.
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What does the liver produce?
Bile that is stored in the gall bladder. The alkaline bile is squirted into the small intestine and neutralises the stomach acid. Bile makes the conditions in the small intestine slightly alkaline.
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What do biological detergents contain?
Proteases and lipases that digest food stains. They work at lower temperatures than ordinary washing powders.
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What can proteases be used for?
To pre digest proteins in some baby foods.
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What is isomerase used for?
To convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup. It's sweeter, so less in needed. The foods are therefore not as fattening.
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What are carbohydrases used for?
To convert starch into sugar syrup for use in foods.
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What are enzymes used for in industry?
To bring about reactions at normal temperatures and pressures.
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What are the advantages of using enzymes?
Money and energy can be saved. They can be used in medicine to diagnose, control or even cure diseases.
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What are the disadvantages of using enzymes?
Industrial enzymes can be costly to produce, enzymes denature at high temperatures, some fabrics will digested by proteases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can proteins be?

Back

Structural components of tissues, such a muscles, hormones, antibodies, catalysts.

Card 3

Front

What are enzymes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where can the substrate be held?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What can enzymes do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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