Biology B1

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  • Created by: Faolan
  • Created on: 02-06-15 20:50
Osmosis
The movement of water from a high water concentration to a low water concentration through a partially permeable membrane. Osmosis takes place in all living cells.
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Potometer
Measures or compares the rate of water loss in different conditions. This apparatus measures the ware uptake by a cut shoot.
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Plasmolysed
A plant cell that has lost water causing the cell membrane to be pulled away from the inside of the cell wall
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Turgid
A plant cell fully inflated with water
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Roots
Plants absorb water from the soil by osmosis. Root hair cells are adapted for this by having a large surface area to speed up osmosis. The absorbed water is transported through the roots to the rest of the plant where it's used for different purposes
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Leaves
Adapted for photosynthesis by having a large surface area, and contain stomata (openings) to allow carbon dioxide into the leaf. These design features can result in the leaf losing a lot of water.
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Genetic material
Contained in chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell
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Chromosomes
Occur in functional pairs (except in sex cells)
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Genes
Are short sections of the chromosomes that control specific characteristics. Genes are therefore short lengths of DNA
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Chargaff
Analysing the chemistry worked out that in terms of number of bases A=T and C=G
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Franklin and Wilson
Using X-Ray diffraction worked out overall shape of the DNA molecule
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Watson and Crick
By Building models they worked out that A joined with T and C joined with G and the double helix structure.
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Mitosis
Takes place throughout the body. Important in growth and replacing worn out damages cells. ensure all new cells have exactly the same chromosome arrangement as each other and the parent cell
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Meiosis
Occurs in sex organs only. it produces gametes. It is a reduction division as it produces gametes with half the number of chromosomes as other cells.
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Asexual Reproduction
Common in plants- this produces clones by mitosis without the need of producing gametes by meiosis
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Allele
These are different forms of the same gene, found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes E.g. the gene for height can have the alleles T or t.
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Homozygous
An organism is homozygous for a trait if it has 2 identical alleles, found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes. E.g. Tall (TT) and dwarf (tt).
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Heterozygous
An organism is heterozygous for a trait if it has 2 different alleles, found at the same locus on a pair of homologous chromosomes. E.g. Tt (Tall)
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Dominant
A gene is dominant if it produces the same trait whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous condition. E.g. The genes for tall can be TT or Tt.
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Recessive
A recessive gene is only expressed when it is present in the homozygous condition. E.g. a gene for dwarf is tt.
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Genotype
This is the genes the organism has for a particular trait. E.g. the trait for tall has the genotype TT or Tt.
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Phenotype
This is the physical expression of the genotype. E.g. the genotype TT gives a tall individual
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Mutations
Are changes in chromosome number or structure.
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Skin Cancer
Is caused by random changes to gene structure. The gene damage can be promoted by UV light
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Down Syndrome
Is caused by an error during meiosis. sometimes the two chromosomes in a pair fail to segregate properly and one gamete ends up with 23 chromosomes. If this gamete is involved in fertilisation the down syndrome child will have 47 chromosomes in each.
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Cystic Fibrosis
Is another inherited disease caused by a recessive allele
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Genetic screening
May be used to reduce the incidence of diseases or conditions caused by problems with our chromosomes or genes. It involves testing people for the presence of a particular allele or genetic condition.
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Genetic Engineering
A piece of DNA can be taken from one organism and incorporated into another organism. Typically a gene that makes a useful product is incorporated into bacteria and the bacterium becomes a factory that makes the desired product. e.g. insulin
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Continuous Variation
Gradual change in a characteristic across a population with no distinct categories; most individuals will be average with fewer at both extremes e.g. Height, weight, reaction time
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Discontinuous Variation
Individuals can be grouped into distinct groups with no overlap Tongue Rolling, blood group
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Genetic Variation
This describes variation due to gentic make up e.g. eye colour
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Environmental
This describes varation due to the environmen, for example plants look very different if they are watered or receive alot of light- even if they are genetically similiary
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Natural selection
The driving force for evolution. His main points were- If there is a competition for resources there will be a struggle for existence o The better adapted individuals survive this struggle which leads to survival of the fittest.
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Natural innate immunity
Immunity from birth- antibodies passing from mother to baby across the placenta
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Natural Acquired immunity
Develops during life- catching the disease and recovering causes the body to produce its own antibodies
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Artificial Active Immunity
Having a vaccination- this causes the body to produce its own antibodies
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Artificial Passive Immunity
Antibodies injected into the body
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Vaccinations
Involve the use of dead or modified pathogens that are injected into the body. The pathogens still have the antigens on their surfaces that cause the body to make antibodies at a high enough level to stop the individual becoming ill later.
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Antibiotics
These are chemicals which can damage and kill living microbes. They can be used against bacterial infections. Antibiotics kill bacteria or stop their growth.  Antibiotics combat a range of bacteria and they act in a different manner to antibodies.
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Bacterial resistance
To antibiotics is becoming a major problem and is making many antibiotics ineffective against various bacteria. The overuse of antibiotics is largely responsible and it is important that antibiotics are only used when necessary.
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Superbugs
These bugs are resistant to most types of antibiotic and can be a very serious problem in hospitals.  The spread of Superbugs can be reduced by good hygiene and cleanliness. A greater care in administering antibiotics and only when necessary.
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Spontaneous Generation
Previous to Pasteur’s work it was assumed that microorganisms appeared from nowhere
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Skin
The skin is an excellent barrier to microorganisms. Any openings in the skin such as the nose and respiratory system have a mucous membrane which traps microorganisms.
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Clotting
This stops blood from escaping but also stops microorganisms from entering through the cut in the skin.
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Antigens
Invading microorganisms have chemicals on their surface that the body can recognise to be foreign. They cause lymphocytes to produce antibodies.
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Antibodies
Have a shape that is complimentary to the antigens. The antibodies join with the microorganisms and cause them to clump together. Once this happens, they are easily destroyed by phagocytes in a process known as phagocytosis.
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Phagocytosis
White Blood Cells can surround microorganisms and engulf the.Chemicals inside the phagocyte can then digest the microorganism.
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The Circulatory System
Has three main components- the blood, blood vessels and the heart. It has two main functions- Transport of Blood Cells, absorbed food, hormones, urea etc. Protection Against Disease.
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Red Blood cell
The function of these cells is to carry oxygen around the body. It is the haemoglobin which enables them to do this. It has a large surface area due to the biconcave shape and does not contain a nucleus.
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White blood cell
The blood contains two types of white blood cell- Lymphocytes and Phagocytes. Lymphocytes produce antibodies while phagocytes engulf bacteria.
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Platelets
These are important in blood clotting and the formation of scabs.
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Plasma
This is the liquid part of the blood. The plasma is responsible for the transport of the blood cells, absorbed food molecules, carbon dioxide, hormones and urea.
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The heart
Pumps the blood to the lungs and around the body. This is why the heart has two sides- the right hand side pumps the blood to the lungs while the left hand side pumps the blood to the body. This is why the left hand side is thicker, as more pressure
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Right Atrium
Receives deoxygenated blood from the body. This passes into the right ventricle where it is pumped out in the pulmonary artery to the lungs.
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Double circulatory system
The blood travels through the heart twice in one circulation.
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Heart Disease
Caused by cholesterol being present in high levels in the arteries. Over time this leads to narrowing of the arteries, making it difficult for blood to flow through them. This is particularly likely to happen in the coronary arteries, hence Coronary
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Strokes
Caused by cholesterol being present in high levels in the arteries. Over time this leads to narrowing of the arteries, making it difficult for blood to flow through them. This is particularly likely to happen in the coronary arteries, hence Coronary
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Measures or compares the rate of water loss in different conditions. This apparatus measures the ware uptake by a cut shoot.

Back

Potometer

Card 3

Front

A plant cell that has lost water causing the cell membrane to be pulled away from the inside of the cell wall

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A plant cell fully inflated with water

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Plants absorb water from the soil by osmosis. Root hair cells are adapted for this by having a large surface area to speed up osmosis. The absorbed water is transported through the roots to the rest of the plant where it's used for different purposes

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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