Biology

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  • Created by: Adelaide
  • Created on: 16-04-13 14:48
Name 5 parts that both plant and animal cells have
Nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria
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What 3 parts do plant cells have but animal cells don't?
Cell wall, vacuole, chloroplasts
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Where is the genetic material found in A. bacterial cells B. animal cells
Bacterial cells - floats in cytoplasm (no nucleus) Animal cells - nucleus
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What is diffusion?
The spreasing out of particles from high concentration to low concentration
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Name 3 substances that can diffuse through celll membranes and 2 that can't
CAN - small molecules such as oxygen, glucose, amino acids, water CAN'T - big molecules like starch, proteins
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What is osmosis and what must there be for it to occur?
The net movement of water from a low concentration to high. Must have 2 different concentrations and a partially permeable membrane
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Give 3 ways that a leaf cell is specially adapted
Chloroplasts near the top for photosynthesis, tall shape more surface area to absorb CO2, thin shape easily packed.
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Give 2 ways red blood cells are specially adapted
Special shape larger surface area to absorb oxygen, no nucleus so more space for lots of haemoglobin (absorb oxygen)
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Give 4 ways that sperm cells are specially adapted
Long tail/streamlined head, lots of mitochondria and enzymes in head,
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What is the equation for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide + water -----sunlight--chlorophyll----- glucose + oxygen
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State the order of cell organisation
Cells -- Tissue -- Organs -- Organ Systems -- Organisms
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Name some limiting factors of photosynthesis due to environmental conditions
Light (night), Temperature (seasons), CO2
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Name the 5 ways in which plants use glucose
Respiration, making cell walls, making proteins, stored in seeds, stored as starch
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Name 5 environmental factors that affect where an organism lives
Temperature, availability of water, availibilty of oxygen and carbon dioxide, availability of nutirents, amount of light
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What do enzymes act as inside the human body?
Biological catalyst - reduce the need for high temperatures and speed up the useful chemical reactions in the body
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What are enzymes made up of?
Proteins - chains of amino acids
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How does temperature affect the rate of enzymes?
Higher temperature increases rate. If too hot, bonds break and destroy shape of enzyme. Work best at 37 degrees
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How does pH affect the rate of enzymes?
If too high or low pH inteferes with the bonds which denatures enzyme. Usually optimum pH is neutral (pH 7)
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What does the enzyme amylase do?
Converts starch into sugars (maltose)
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Where is amylase produced?
Salivary glands, pancreas, small intestine
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What does the enzyme protease do?
Converts proteins into amino acids
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Where is protease produced?
Stomach (pepsin), pancreas, small intestine
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What does the enzyme lipase do?
Converts lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is lipase produced?
Pancreas, small intestine
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What 2 things does bile do?
Neutralises stomach acid (it is an alkali) and emulsifies fats (increases surface area)
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Where is bile produced, stored and released to?
Produced in liver, stored in gall bladder, released into small intestine
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Define respiration
The process of releasing energy from glucose which goes on in every cell
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What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?
Glucose + Oxygen ---- Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
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What is the energy created from respiration used for? (4 things)
1. Build larger molecules from smaller ones 2. Allow muscles to contract 3. Keep body temperature steady (mammals) 4. Build sugars, nitrates into amino acids (plants)
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Name the two things that physical activity increases
1. Your breathing rate to meet demand for extra oxygen 2. Speed at which your heart pumps
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What happens to the glucose in your body during exercise?
It is stored as glycogen, mainly in the liver and other muscles. Some glycogen converted back to glucose to provide extra energy.
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What happens when your body can't supply enough oxygen to your muscles during exercise?
They start anaerobic (without oxygen) respiration instead of aerobic
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What are the disadvantages of anaerobic respiration?
Lactic acid builds up in muscles causing muscle fatigue, does not release as much energy as aerobic, oxygen debt.
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Name 3 uses of enzymes
Biological detergents (removing stains), Baby food, Industry (speed up reactions)
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Name 3 advantages and 3 disadvantages of using enzymes in Industry
A: specific, saves energy so lower cost, biodegradable (less pollution). D: allergies, expensive to produce, sensitive to changes in temp. and pH
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How do genes, cells and DNA work together to determine a type of cell?
DNA tells cells what proteins to make. Genes tell cells what order the amino acids should be in. Cells string together amino acids to make proteins.
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Describe the 4 steps in Mitosis
1. Cell gets signal to divide and forms X chromosomes. Each arm identical. 2. Cell fibres pull chromosomes apart. 3. Membranes form around each set of chromosome and become nuclei. 4. Cytoplasm divides
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What are gametes?
Sex cells that have one copy of each chromosome (one from mum, one from dad), not two.
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Define mitosis
When a cell reproduces itself by splitting to form two identical offspring
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Define meiosis
Produces cells which have half the normal number of chromosomes
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Describe the four steps in meiosis
1. Cell duplicates DNA to form X chromosomes. 2. In the first division, chromosome pairs line up 3. Pairs pulled apart, mix chromosomes from mum and dad into new cell 4. In second division, chromosomes line up and pulled apart.
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What is differentiation and what are undifferentiated cells called?
When a cell changes to become specialised for it's job. Stem cells.
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Where are stem cells found?
Human embryos
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Explain 2 ways that stem cells can cure diseases
Bone marrow transplants contain stem cells that replace old blood cells. Extract stem cells from embryos and grow them to replace faulty cells.
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State a reason for and against stem cell research
AGAINST: human embryos shouldn't be used for experiments. FOR: embryos used are unwanted
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Which combination of X or Y chromosomes do men and women have?
Men: XY Women: **
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What is the chance of getting an X or Y chromosome
50%
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Explain 3 of Mendel's final conclusions
1. Characteristics in plants are determined by 'heredity units' 2. Heredity units are passed on from both parents 3. HU can be dominant or recessive
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
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Define homozygous and heterozygous
Homo: 2 alleles for a gene are the same Hetero: 2 alleles for a gene are different
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What must an organism have to display recessive characteristics?
Both alleles must be recessive
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What must an organism have to display dominant characteristics?
Only one must be dominant (dominant overrules recessive)
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Explain why/how cystic fibrosis occurs
1) Recessive allele carried by 1 in 25. 2) People with 1 copy of allele are carriers 3) Both parents must be carriers or sufferers for child to suffer
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Explain why/how polydactyl occurs
1) Dominant defective allele 2) Can occur if 1 parent has the allele 3) 50% chance of disorder if one parent suffers
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Name the 3 ways that fossils can be formed
1. Gradual replacement by minerals 2. Casts and impressions 3. Preservation where no decay happens
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Name the 6 reasons why species can become extinct
1. The environment changes 2. New predator 3. New disease 4. Can't compete for food 5. Catastrophic event (volcano) 6. New species develops (speciation)
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What is isolation?
Where populations of a species are separated due to physical barrier.
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Explain how isolation and natural selection lead to speciation
Isolation occurs and conditions are different on each side. Different characteristics become common due to natural selection. Two groups become separate species.
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Card 2

Front

What 3 parts do plant cells have but animal cells don't?

Back

Cell wall, vacuole, chloroplasts

Card 3

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Where is the genetic material found in A. bacterial cells B. animal cells

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is diffusion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name 3 substances that can diffuse through celll membranes and 2 that can't

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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