Biology paper 1 - infection and response

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  • Created by: rosieraby
  • Created on: 12-05-18 14:46
What are microorganisms that cause disease called?
Pathogens
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What four things could pathogens be?
Bacteria, virus, fungi and protist
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What do bacteria produce that damage our tissues and make us feel ill?
Toxins/poisons
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Where do viruses reproduce which cause cell damage?
Reproduce inside cells
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Which viral disease causes a fever and a red skin rash?
Measles
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How is measles virus spread?
Inhalation of droplets from sneezes and coughs
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What is HIV infection controlled by?
Antiretroviral drugs
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What is late stage HIV infection where the body's immune system becomes so badly damaged that it can no longer deal with other infections or cancers?
AIDS
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Name a plant virus that causes a discolouration of the leaves as a pattern and affects the growth of the plant due to a lack of photosynthesis?
TMV
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Which bacterial disease is spread by contaminated food?
Salmonella
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What are the symptoms of salmonella food poisoning?
Fever, abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrohoea
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Name an STD that is spread by bacterium.
Gonorrhoea
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Give two symptoms of gonorrhoea.
Thick yellow/green discharge and painful urination
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Name a plant fungal disease.
Rose black spot
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What is a symptom of rose black spot?
Purple or black spots develop on leaves which turn yellow and drop
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How is rose black spot treated?
Fungicides and/or removing and destroying affected leaves
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How is rose black spot spread?
By water or wind
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Name a protist disease.
Malaria
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Give a symptom of malaria.
Recurrent episodes of fever
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How can the spread of malaria be controlled?
Preventing vectors (mosquitos) from breeding and using mosquito nets to avoid being bitten
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Name a non-specific defence system of the human body.
Skin, nose, trachea/bronchi and stomach
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In which three ways do WBCs help to defend against pathogens?
Antibodies, antitoxins and phagocytosis
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What is a vaccination?
Introducing small quantities of dead/inactive pathogens to stimulate
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What do antibiotics do?
Kill bacteria
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Give an example of an antibiotic.
Penicillin
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Can antibiotics kill viral pathogens?
No
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Do painkillers kill pathogens?
No
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Why is it difficult to kill viruses?
May also damage the body's tissues
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Where does the heart drug digitalis originate from?
Foxglove
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Where does the painkiller aspirin originate from?
Willow tree
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Who discovered penicillin?
Alexander Fleming
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What is the first stage of drug testing called?
Pre-clinical testing
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What three things are new drugs extensively tested for?
Toxicity, efficacy and dose
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Where is pre-clinical testing done?
In a lab
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Who does clinical testing involve?
Healthy volunteers and patients
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What is a placebo?
Fake drug
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What is a double-blind trial?
Patient and doctor do not know who has the real drug
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What four things could pathogens be?

Back

Bacteria, virus, fungi and protist

Card 3

Front

What do bacteria produce that damage our tissues and make us feel ill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where do viruses reproduce which cause cell damage?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which viral disease causes a fever and a red skin rash?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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