Biology 1

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  • Created by: millyag
  • Created on: 23-03-16 17:30
How many chromosomes do humans have?
46, 23 pairs.
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Structural proteins?
Skin, hair, blood, and the cytoplasm in our cells.
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Functional proteins?
Enzymes that help with the digestion of food by breaking down food molecules.
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Genotype?
All the genes and organism has.
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Phenotype?
The characteristics that an organism displays
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Why do children not look identical to their parents?
Because they haven't got ALL the same alleles , every child will have a new unique combination of alleles.
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What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene.
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Male sex chromosomes?
XY
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Female sex chromosomes?
XX
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Homozygous?
2 alleles that are the same.
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Heterozygous?
2 different alleles.
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2 dominant alleles or 1 dominant and one recessive?
Only dominant characteristic will show.
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2 recessive?
Recessive allele will show.
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Sex cells contain ..... chromosomes?
23 single chromosomes- 1 chromosome from each pair.
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False positive?
Healthy people being told that they have a genetic disorder.
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False negative?
People with a genetic disorder being told that they are healthy.
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Why might insurance companies refuse to give life insurance to people with genetic disorders?
Because they have the 'wrong' alleles.
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What does asexual mean?
Organisms reproducing without sexual reproduction.
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What does producing asexually make?
Clones.
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How does bacteria reproduce asexually?
Divides into 2.
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How to plants reproduce asexually?
Produce horizontal stems called runners that come from the base of the plant and produce clones on their tip.
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What plant can reproduce asexually?
Strawberry plant.
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Out of Huntington's disease and Cystic Fibrosis, which one is caused by a recessive allele?
Cystic Fibrosis.
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What are the symptoms of cystic fibrosis?
Thick sticky mucus in air passages, gut and pancreas. Breathing difficulty. Chest infections. Difficulty in digesting foods.
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What the are symptoms of Huntington's disease?
Memory loss, clumsiness, mood changes, lack of concentration and there is no cure.
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When do symptoms for Huntington's disease usually appear?
40 years old.
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What is an example of a specialised cell?
A type of white blood cell is specialised to fight invaders but can't carry oxygen like red blood cells.
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What are stem cells?
Cells that are unspecialised (can turn into any kind of cell).
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What are embryonic stem cells?
Unspecialised cells found in the early embryos, the stem cells are removed and they have the potential to turn into any type of cell.
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What are adult stem cells?
Unspecialised cells found in animals, these can specialise into many type of cells but not all.
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How can adult stem cells be safely removed?
By extracting bone marrow.
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What animal can reproduce asexually and how?
Female greenfly can reproduce asexually by laying eggs and they turn out to be clones of the mother.
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Are identical twins clones?
Yes.
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What are differences between identical twins caused by?
The environment.
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How are twins formed?
An embryo splits into 2.
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How do you make a clone?
The Nucleus of an egg cell is removed which leaves the egg cell without any genetic information.
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How do you make a clone (2)?
An adult donor cell is inserted, and once this is sterilized it can begin to grow as a normal embryo and will be a clone of the adult donor.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Skin, hair, blood, and the cytoplasm in our cells.

Back

Structural proteins?

Card 3

Front

Enzymes that help with the digestion of food by breaking down food molecules.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

All the genes and organism has.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The characteristics that an organism displays

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Murad123

sick

gracie445

I watch gossip girl and I think this is amazing~ Andrew Wight <3 <3 <3 <3

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