Biology- Characteristics of living organisms

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 30-06-16 14:07
Define movement
An action by an organism or a part of an organism causing a change in place or position
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Define respiration
Chemical reactions in cells that break down nutrient molecules and release energy for metabolism
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Define sensitivity
The ability to detect or sense changes in the internal or external environment and make appropriate responses
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Define growth
Permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell size or cell number or both
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Define reproduction
The processes that make more of the same kind
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Define excretion
Removal from organisms of the waste products of metabolism, toxic materials and substances in excess of requirement
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Deine nutrition
Taking in of materials for energy, growth and development
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What is variation?
Offspring differ from each other
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Define classification
The science of placing organisms into categories based on their observable characteristics, habitats and origins
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What is the hierarchy of classification?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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Define species
A group of organisms that can produce fertile offsprings
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What do classification systems do?
They aim to reflect evolutionary relationships
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What is classification based on?
Morphology and anatomy
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What is the binomial system?
An internationally agreed system in which the scientific name of an organism is made up of the genus and species
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What are more accurate means of classification?
Sequences of basis in DNA and sequences of amino acids in proteins
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What is the structure of a virus?
One strand of genetic material, protein coat to protect it and spikes to contact and recognise cells
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Why are viruses special?
They don't show typical features of living things unless they are inside another living organism
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What are the five kingdoms?
Animal, plant, fungi, protoctist, prokaryote
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Why are the sequences of recent ancestors more similar than of distant ones?
Less evolutionary time for mutation to change them
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What are the features of the animal kingdom?
Multicellular, no cell walls, no chlorophyll in cells, feed heterotrophically
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What are the features of the plant kingdom?
Multicellular, cell wall, chlorophyll in cells, feed autotrophically
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What are the features of the fungi kingdom?
Multicellular, cell wall, no chlorophyl, feed saprophytically
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What are the features of the protoctist kingdom?
Mostly unicellular, nucleus in cells
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What are the features of the prokaryote kingdom?
Unicellular, no nucleus
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How do plants feed?
Autotrophically by manufacturing organic food from inorganic substances by photosynthesis with the help of the light absorbing pigment chlorophyll
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What are the 4 phyla in the plant kingdom?
Algae, mosses, ferns and angiosperms
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Which phyla of the plant kingdom are adapted to life on land?
Ferns and angiosperms
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How are ferns adapted to life on land?
They have roots, stem, complex leaves and vascular tissues. Produce spores for wide dispersal
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Why do ferns live in shade?
They have a thin cuticle
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What is the underground stem of a fern called and what does it do?
Rhizome, it survives in case the fronds die
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How are angiosperms adapted to life on land?
Flowers to attract insects, fruits to attract animals, large leaf surface, extensive root system, ovary protects the embryo from drying out
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What two groups of angiosperms are there?
Monocotyledon and dicotyledon
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What are the features of monocotyledons?
One cotyledon, one seed leaf, parallel veins in mature leaf
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What are the features of dicotyledons?
Two cotyledons, two seed leaf, branched veins in mature leaf
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What do invertebrates not have?
A backbone
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What are the 4 phylums of invertebrates?
Nematodes, annelids, molluscs, arthropods
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What are the features of nematodes?
Long muscles (wriggling movements), long thin body (so not washed out of the intestine of the host), bloodsucking mouthparts, body covered with mucus (resist digestive juices)
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What are the features of annelids?
Chaetae, body is segmented, long cylindrical body covered in mucus (prevent drying out)
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What are the features of molluscs?
Shell that protects the soft body, eyes on tentacles, foot is a muscle in slime
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Which 4 classes does the arthropod phylum has?
Crustacea, insects, myriapods, arachnids
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What are the features of crustacea?
Carapace, gills under shell, jointed limbs, hardened edge to claws
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What are the features of insects?
Specialised mouthparts, compound eyes, antennae, 4 wings, body is segmented into head, thorax and abdomen, they show metamorphosis
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What is metamorphosis?
A change of body form which allows avoiding competition for food sources and allows the body to be specialised for different functions
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What are the features of myriapods?
Waterproof body covering, hard exoskeleton, many body segments, antennae, walking legs
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What are the features of arachnids?
Head and thorax are combined, spinneret, 4 pairs of legs, powerful jaws, simple eyes but more than one pair
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What are the 5 classes of vertebrate animals?
Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
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What are the features of fish?
Scales covered in mucus, lateral line with sense organs, fins, operculum covering gills
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What are the features of amphibians?
4 lims, moist skin, nostrils leading to lungs, wide mouth (adult amphibians are predators)
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What are the features of reptiles?
Dry, scaly skin, tail, limbs, mouth with teeth
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What are the features of birds?
Nostrils leading to lungs, beak, limbs modified as wings, scales on feet are ideal for piercing, feathers are vital for flight and endothermy
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To what phylum do mammals belong to?
They are a class in the chordata phylum
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Chordates are...
Vertebrates
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What does a backbone consist of?
Smaller bones- vertebrae
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What are the features of mammals?
Fur that allows endothermy, pinna on ear, whiskers and mouth with teeth
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Mammals are...
Endothermic vertebrates
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Why are humans mammals?
They show typical mammalian characteristics: hair, diaphragm, mammary glands
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Why are humans unique?
Our adaptations allow us to modify our environment so it is suitable for us
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Card 3

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Define sensitivity

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Card 4

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Define growth

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Card 5

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