Biology B5

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What are the two types of skeleton?
Internal skeleton, and external skeleton
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What are the advantages of an internal skeleton over an exoskeleton?
It provides internal framework for the body, it grows with the rest of the body, it is flexible because of joints, and it allows easy attachment of muscles.
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What are cartilage and bone?
Living tissues containing cells.
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What does a long bone consist of?
A long shaft containing bone marrow with blood vessels. At each end the head is covered with cartilage.
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Why ar long bones stronger and lighter than solid bones?
Because they are hollow.
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What is a disadvantage of bone and cartilage being living tissue?
They can both be infected by bacteria and diseases, but they can grow and repair themselves.
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What is the skeleton made from in early stages?
Completely made of cartilage.
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What process happens in the body which replaces the cartilage with bone? (Calcium deposits)
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What two things do some elderly bones lack, and what does this cause?
They can lack calcium and phosphorus, which can lead to osteoporosis
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Why is it dangerous to move someone who may have broken their spine?
Because it can damage the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis or death.
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What joint is a ball and socket joint an example of? Name one other example of this joint.
A synovial joint. Another example is a hinge joint
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What 4 things do synovial joints contain?
synovial fluid, a synovial membrane, ligaments and cartilage.
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The forearm is raised by your biceps and triceps, what are these muscles called?
Antagonistic muscles.
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What happens when you raise your arm?
The biceps contract and the triceps relax
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What happens when you lower your arm?
The biceps relax and the triceps contract.
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What is the function of synovial fluid in a synovial joint?
To cushion against shock and act as lubricant for easy movement.
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What is the function of the synovial membrane?
To hold in the synovial fluid
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What is the function of the cartilage?
To protect the bone head
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What is the function of the ligaments?
To hold the bone in place.
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What is raising and lowering the arm an example of?
A lever, where the elbow acts as a Pivot.
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Why do animals need a blood circulatory system?
To make sure the cells recieve nutrients and to remove waster products such as carbon dioxide.
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Why do veins have valves?
To prevent backflow.
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What is a single circulatory system? Give an example of an animal with a single circulatory system?
It has a single circuit to all parts of the body. A fish.
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What is a double circulatory system? Give an example of an animal with a double circulatory system?
It has two circuits, one for the heart and the lungs, and the other from the heart to the rest of the body. Humans.
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What does a double circulatory system require?
4 chambers in the heart. Two atria to recieve blood, and two ventricles to distribute blood.
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What does a single circulatory system require?
2 chambers only.
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What did Galen believe in the 2nd century?
That the liver made blood that flowed backwards and forwards.
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What did William Harvey know in the 17th century?
That blood circulated around the body, the heart had four chambers, and about the tiny blood vessels we now know as capillaries.
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What is a cardiac cycle?
It is the sequence of events as blood enters and leaves the heart.
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How does the heart pump blood?
The two atria contract as the ventricles relax to recieve blood through the atria-ventricular valves to prevent backflow. The muscles of the ventricles contract to force blood around the body. Semi lunar valves prevent backflow.
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Why does heart race increase when you exercise?
Because more muscular activity requires more oxygen and food, so the heart race increases.
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What hormone causes the heart rate to increase?
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How does the contraction of the heart remain constant?
Groups of cells form pacemakers, and produce a small electric current to stimulate contraction. An artificial pacemaker can also be placed near the heart.
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What two procedures can be used to investigate irregular heart actions?
An electrocardiogram (ECG) or and Echocardiogram.
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What are the names of the two natural pacemakers?
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How do they work?
The SAN conracts the atria and stimulates the AVN to contract the ventricles.
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What is the problem of a hole in the heart, and how can it be fixed?
It allows deoxygenated blood to mix with the oxygen, providing less oxygen for the tissues, so they have less energy. This can be fixed by undergoing open heart surgery.
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Why is the circulation of an unborn baby different to a born one?
An unborn baby has a hole in its heart which closes up at birth. A baby does not use its lungs until birth, so therefore does not need a double circulatory system.
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What will happen if a heart has weak of damaged valves?
The valves produce a lower blood pressure and poor circulation as the blood will leak backwards.
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What does a blocked coronary artery cause, and how can this be fixed?
It reduces blood flow to the heart muscle, but can be fixed by transplanting a blood vessel from another part of the body.
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How can major heart problems be corrected? What is used to facilitate recovery?
A heart transplant. A heart assist device can be used to add extra pressure to blood leaving the heart,allowing damaged tissue to heal.
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What can doctors prescribe to prevent blood clots?
Aspirin, warfarin, or heparin
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What inheritied condition means that blood cannot clot?
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What reaction takes place when different blood groups are incompatible?
agglutination (blood clumping)
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What blood group can A donate to/recieve from?
A,AB / A,O
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What blood group can B donate to/recieve from?
B,AB / B,O
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What blood group can AB donate to/recieve from?
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What blood group can O donate to/recieve from?
O / O
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Why are Amphibians restricted to moist habitats?
Because of their respiratory systems. They have simple lungs, but use their moist permable skin to obtain oxygen.
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Why can fish only survive in water?
Because their gills only work in water. They obtain oxygen when water is forced over filaments.
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How does air enter the lungs?
The ribs are moved up and out, and the diaphram is moved downwards, causing the chest volume and pressure to increase. The higher outside pressure causes air to enter the lungs.
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How do we breathe out?
The ribs move downwards and the diaphragm relaxes, moving upwards. The chest volume therefore decreases, increasing the pressure, forcing air out of the lungs.
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What three things does the total lung capacity consist of?
Tidal air, vital capacity, and residual air.
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What is tidal air?
the amount of air normally breathed in and out at rest.
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What is the vital capacity?
the maximum amount of air that can be exchanged
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What is residual air?
the amount of air that cannot be forced out of the lungs
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How does exchange of gases take place?
By diffsuion between the alveoli and the air sacs. Diffusion occurs because the oxygen concentration is higher in the air than in the capillaries around the alveoli
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How are the exchange surfaces adapted?
They have a large SA and good blood supply. They are moist, permable and only one cell thick.
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What can be used to help diagnose lung disease?
Readings from a spirometer.
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What is Asbestosis? What does it cause?
An industrial diseae caused by breathing in Asbestos fibres. It produces inflammation and scarring of the lungs, reducing gaseous exchange.
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What happens in the inherited condition cystic fibrosis?
To much mucus is produced in the bronchioles causing breathing difficulties.
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What happens in an asthma attack?
The linings of the airways become inflammed, mucus and fluid build up and the muscles around the bronchioles contract.
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Why is physical digestion important?
Because it allows food to pass more easily through the digestion system, it prepares the food for chemical digestion by giving it a larger SA.
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Where are carbs broken down, and by which enzyme?
In the mouth where carbohydrase breaks down starch to sugar, in the stomach where protease breaks down protein into amino acids, in the small intestine where lipase breaks down fat into fatty acids and glycerol.
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What provides the optimum condtitions for protease to work?
The strong stomach acids.
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What are the two steps in the chemical breakdown of starch?
The breakdown of starch into maltose, then from maltose into glucose.
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What does the gall bladder store, and what is it used for?
It stores bile, which is released into the small intestine to emulsify fats, increasing their SA for efficient digestion.
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Complete the sentence: Food cells need to be able to pass through the walls of the ----- ---------, and dissolve in the ----- or -----. This means they have to be small and soluble,
small intestine, blood, lymph
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Finsih this sentence: Digested carbs and protein molecules are both -------.
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What is different about the digested fat molecules? What happens to those?
They are not soluble so would block up blood vessels, so enter the lymph by diffusion.
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How is the small intestine adapted for efficient absorption of food?
By having an extensive system of capillaries and an extensive system of lacteals, which contain lymph. It also has a large SA
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How does the small intestine have such a large surface area?
They have manny villi, and many microvilli from the walls of the villi.
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What happens to excess an unwanted amino acids?
They are broken down in the liver, forming urea, which is taken to the kidneys.
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How does blood containing waste enter the kidney? How does blood not containing waste leave the kidney?
Renal artery. Renal vein.
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How does waste from the kidney leave, and what is it called?
It leaves from the ureters as urine.
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What do kidneys have where filteration takes place?
Millions of microscopic kidney tubules.
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What does each kidney have?
An outer cortex and inner medulla.
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Each nephron has:
a network of capillaries surrounded by a capsule, this forms a filteration unit, a region where some materials are selectively reabosred, and a region where reabsorption of some salt and water takes place.
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When is a dialysis machine used, and how does it work?
When someone has kidney failure. The machine acts as the kidney and removes urea from the blood.
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What is the dialysis fluid made of?
some sodium salts, so the concentration is the same or slightly lower than the desired blood concentration.
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Finish this sentence: After drinking a large quantity of water,
the quantity of urine produced increases, but the concentration decreases.
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When does the amount of urine produced decrease, and the concentration increase.
During strenuous exercise or in hot conditions because the body produces more sweat to cool down.
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What gland produces the hormoneto control concentration, and what is it called?
The pituary gland, and the hormone is called ADH, or anti-diuretic hormone.
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How does it control conceentration?
It increases the permability of the kidney tubules so more water is reabsorbed, and uses a negative feedback system to control ADH production.
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How can carbon dioxide be toxic?
At high concentrations in the body.
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How is the excess carbon dioxide removed?
An increase in levels in the blood is detected by receptors in the carotid artery. Nerve impulses inform the brain, which causes the rate of breathing to increase, removing excess carbon dioxide.
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What are the names of the 4 sex hormones that control the menstrual cycle?
FSH stimulates the egg to develop, LH controls ovulation, Progesterone maintains the uterus wall, and Oestrogen repairs the uterus wall.
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Where are FSH and LH released from?
The pituary gland in the brain.
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What controls the levels of hormones, and where is the cycle triggered?
A negative feedback system controls the hromones, and the cycle is triggered by the hypothalamus.
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What happens is fertilisation does not occur?
The levels of progesterone and oestrogen decrease, causing menstruation.
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What happens if the egg is fertilised?
The levels of progesterone remain high and no FSH is produced.
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How can fertility be controlled in humans?
By the use of the concraceptive pill to prevent ovulation, and fertility drugs to ensure ovulation.
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How does the contraceptive pill work?
By releasing artificial hormones, tricking the body into thinking its pregnant, inhibiting the product of FSH so no eg is developed.
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What are the methods of treating infertility?
Artificial insemination, using FSH to stimulate egg development, IVF (test tube baby), egg donation, and surrogacy.
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Why do some peope no agree with the methods of treating infertility?
Because it is very expensive and some religious people are against it.
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In what two ways can a foetus be checked for abnormalities?
extracting and testing the cells in the amniotic fluid, or by chromosomal analysis.
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Why do some people disagree with testing the foteus?
Because it is not natural, and can cause a miscarriage.
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What two things can increase growth?
A balance diet and regular exercise.
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What are extremities in height usually caused by?
a hormone imbalance or by genes.
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Why are babies measured regularly? What do they use to check?
To make sure there are no signs of abnormal growth development, possibly caused by malnourishment or hormones. Average growth charts are used to check.
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Where is the human growth hormone produced?
In the pituary gland.
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Why has life expectancy in humans increased?
Fewer deaths from industrial diseases, better housing, a healthier diet and lifestyle, and advances in modern medicine, such as antibiotics.
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What is one advantage and one disadvantage of having a longer life expectancy?
It is a burden on health services, but you can enjoy a longer retirement.
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Why is the supply of donated organs so limited?
By a shortage of donors and restrictions because of tissue matches, size match and age match.
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How can these problems be sorted? What are the disadvantages of this solution?
By using mechanical organs. It depends on a power supply, the bodys reaction, and they will not last as long as a human organ would.
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What 3 things can people readily donate?
Blood, bone marrow, and a kidney, as we dont need two.
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What are the criteria for organ donation of a dead person?
Approval from donor or relative, and the donor must be brain dead.
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Why does organ donation raise ethical issues?
human rights, operating on a dead person, and that a persons death was neccessary to supply someone with a new organ.
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Why do people who have recieved organs need life long immuno-suppressive drugs?
Because the transplants are at risk of being rejected by the body.
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What is the donor register?
A register of people that have agreed that their organs can be donated when they die.
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Some countries have an opt-out donor system. What is this?
Where they assume that everyone has agreed to donate their organs when they die, unless they say otherwise. Some say this is against human rights.
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How can trends in transplant and survival rates shown?
By interpreting data from a graph or table.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the advantages of an internal skeleton over an exoskeleton?


It provides internal framework for the body, it grows with the rest of the body, it is flexible because of joints, and it allows easy attachment of muscles.

Card 3


What are cartilage and bone?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does a long bone consist of?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why ar long bones stronger and lighter than solid bones?


Preview of the front of card 5
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