What two types of filtration happen in the kidney?
Ultrafiltration and selectrive reabsorption
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Where does ultrafiltration happen?
Between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
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What two things are left in the blood in ultrafiltration?
Blood cells and proteins
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Give 3 things squeezed through into the Bowman's capsule
Ions, urea, glucose and water
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What is ultrafiltration?
When high pressure is built up and waste is squeezed through the glomerulus, into the Bowman's capsule
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What is selective reabsorption?
When useful substances are taken back into the blood stream, through the permeable wall of the nephron
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What are three parts of the tube that make up a kidney, in order?
First convoluted tubule, Loop og Henlé and second convoluted tubule
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Which two things are reabsorbed?
Sufficient water and all glucose
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Where does the final waste flow along?
The ureter (held in the bladder ) to the urethra
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Where does the clean blood go to?
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Which hormone controls the amount of water reabsorbed?
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How does ADH work?
The walls of the tubules become more permeable when excess ADH is released by the pituitary gland, so more water is reabsorbed (and vice versa). The brain knows when there is too much or too little water
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Which two methods can be used to overcome kidney disease?
Dialysis and transplant
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Which liquid is use din dialysis?
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Give the 3 steps of dialysis
1) Dirty blood taken. 2) The selectively permeable membrane in the machine allows waste to flow from high conc to low conc, into the dialysate. 3) Clean blood given back
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Why aren't salts and glucose absorbed by the dialysate?
The fluid has the same concentration as the blood
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Give a con of dialysis
Doesn't cure anything. Time consuming
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Give a con of transplant
Have to go on immunosuppresents because might be rejected. Hard to find a tissue match
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Give a pro of dialysis
Treats kidney failure. Unlikely to cause infection
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Give a pro of transplants
Cures when it works
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Give 2 reasons why an egg cell is adapted to its job
Nutrients in cytoplasm. Haploid nucleus so will have 2n with a sperm. Straight after fertilising, the jelly coat goes hard, stopping other sperm entering
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Give 3 reasons why a sperm cell is adapted to its job
The acrosome contains digestive enzymes. Many mitochondria in middle section for energy. Tail to swim. n nucleus so can be 2n with egg cell.
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What is the first of the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle?
Bleeding starts due to endometrium breaking down
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What is the second of the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle?
Endometrium build up
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What is the third of the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle?
Egg is released from ovaries
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What is the fourth of the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle?
Lining maintained to cushion egg
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What is the endometrium?
The uterus lining
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What does FSH stand for?
Follicle stimulating hormone
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What does LH stand for?
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What 2 things does FSH stimulate?
The production of oestrogen. A follicle to mature.
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What is a follicle?
An egg and its surrounding cells
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What 3 things does oestrogen cause?
Endometrium to build up. LH surge. Stops secretion of FSH
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What does LH stimulate?
Ovulation at day 14 (follicle ruptures and egg released). Stimulates rest of follicle to become a corpus luteum
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Which part gives out LH?
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Which part gives out oestrogen?
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Which part gives out FSH?
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What gives out progesterone?
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What 3 things does progesterone do?
Maintains lining of uterus. Inhibits production of LH and FSH. When progesterone is low, oestrogen will be low so endometrium breaks down. Low progesterone allows FSH to be released and cycle starts again
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What is the order of hormones being secreted in the menstrual cycle?
FSH, oestrogen, LH and progesterone (and back to FSH)
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How long does the cycle last?
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Give an example of negative feedback in the menstrual cycle
Oestrogen stops further secretion of FSH.
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Give 3 fertility treatments
IVF, hormone treatments and surrogacy
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What are the two types of IVF?
With donated eggs. With the woman's eggs
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Which two hormones are injected in hormone therapy?
LH and FSH
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Give a pro of HT
Helps the woman get pregnant
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Give a con of HT
Doesn't always work. Can cause multiple pregnancies when too many eggs are stimulates
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Give a pro of couples' own gametes IVF
Provides a child
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Give a con of couples' own gametes IVF
Strong reaction to hormones (dehydration etc). Multiple births = unwanted, expensive kids. Some embryos thrown away
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Give a pro of IVF using donated eggs
Provides a child. If the mother has a genetic disorder, it stops it being passed down
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Give a con of IVF using donated eggs
Can be emotionally difficult for parents, knowing their child has another mother
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Give a pro of surrogacy
Provides a child if it risky for the woman to give birth - and provides gay men with a means of birth
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Give a con of surrogacy
The surrogate mother is the legal mother until she signs the document (which she might not)
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What genotype do men have?
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What genotype to females have?
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Which chromosome allows male characteristics to develop?
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Which two methods can be used to demonstrate that the chance of a female daughter is 50%?
Punnet square and genetic diagram
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What is a sex-linked genetic disorder?
When the gene for a characteristic is on a sex chromosome (X or Y)
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Why might men be more vulnerable to sex-linked disorders?
The Y chromosome is shorter so sometimes they only have 1 allele that should be in a pair. This means, even if it's recessive, it will still become the phenotype
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Give 2 examples of sex-linked genetic disorders
Colourblindness and haemophilia
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What is aseptic technique?
Excluding all other life to reduce the contamination
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What is pasteurisation?
Heating to 70C to kill all other harmful life, happens in milk
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How did Louis Pasteur disprove spontaneous generation?
He heated vegetable broth with a straight neck bottle and swan neck. In the swan neck, no bacteria grew because it got trapped in the loop but it did in the straight one because it moved right in
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What are the two types of WBCs?
Phagocytes and lymphocytes
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What is phagocystosis?
When WBC phagocytes engulf foreign bodies and digest them
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What do lymphocytes do?
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What is an antigen?
Foreign bodies on the surface of foreign cells (pathogens) that start get stuck to antibodies
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Why are we unlikely to get symptoms on the second exposure to an antigen?
Memory lymphocytes have the specific antibodies stored
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What is a memory lymphocyte?
A cell that stays in the body for a very long time, meaning our secondary response is faster so we dont become symptomatic
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Which is the bad one, smallpox or cowpox?
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How can we stop infections?
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How do immuniations work?
An inactive/dead microorganism into the body that are harmless. This triggers lymphocytes to make antibodies specific to the antigen on the microorganism which are stored in memory lymphocytes so when we actually get the disease,
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Turn over for continues answer to last question..
we get a fast secondary response because we have already had the primary response
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Give 2 pros of immunisation
Can prevent epidemics if a large % are vaccinated as there won't be may for it to spread to. We can wipe out diseases such as smallpox
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Give 2 cons of immunisation
Some say some give you autism (MMR). Doesn't always work - doesn't give you 100% immunity. You might get a bad reaction, or worse, actually GET the disease
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What are monoclonal antibodies?
A large amount of identical antibodies, attacking the same antigen
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How can we produce huge amounts of monoclonal antibodies?
Using a hybridoma that rapidly divides
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What is the same of the large cell that is the fusion between a cancer cell and lymphocyte?
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How do you make a hybridoma?
1) Inject mouse with antigen. 2) Get B-lymphocytes from mouse. 3) Fuse with a fast-dividing myeloma (cancer cell). 4) Harvest the many antibodies from the rapidly diving hybridoma
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Why do we have to fuse B-lymphocytes with a myeloma?
Because B-lymphocytes are slow to divide and myelomas divide quickly
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Give 3 uses of monoclonal antibodies
Pregnancy tests, treating cancer, locating (diagnosing) cancer, find blood clots
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What colour does a pregnancy test go if you ARE pregnant?
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Why do pregnancy tests in pregnant women turn blue?
The hormone in a PREGNANT women's urine sticks to the antibodies on the blue beads which wash down the strip to fixed antibodies where the hormone also sticks to them, leaving the area blue
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to locate cancer?
A radioactive element can be attached and where the antibodies collect (on the tumour markers) there will be a bright area on the special camera
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How can monoclonal antibodies be used to kill cancer cells?
The drug can be attached to the antibodies which will attack at the tumour markers, killing the cell
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Why is using monoclonal antibodies better than radiotherapy?
Only kills cancer cells, not others (but can lower WBC count)
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Give an example of a drug taken from a plant and say what it is used to treat as well as where we get it from.
Malaria = quinine = chinchona tree
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Give 3 reasons why pests in crops are bad
Reduces yield. Farmers have to buy more pesticide. Drives up prices for consumer
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What is photoperiodism?
A change made in response to light levels
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Give an example of photoperiodism
Seeds of some Arctic plants only germinate when days are long so they get enough light
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What is a circadian rhythm
Biological processes that follow a 24 hour cycle
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What is the body's master clock?
A group of cells in the brain
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Give an example of a circadian rhythm in animals
Sleep patterns (when melatonin is high you get sleepy because at night you are not getting the blue light to break it down - "less is produced"). Urination patterns with ADH
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Give an example of a circadian rhythm in plants
Stomata in response to light INTENSITY - open in the day because there is light for photosynthesis, close at night. Flower opening - the tobacco flowers are open at night for pollination by moths
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What is behaviour?
An organism's responses to changes in its environment
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What is negative phototaxis?
A type of innate behaviour when organisms move away from light
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What is innate behaviour?
Inherited behaviour that is automatic (includes reflex)
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What is habituation?
When an originally scary stimulus becomes less scary as organisms get used to it. E.g. scarecrows. Ignoring non-threatening and non-rewarding stimuli
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Is habituation learned or innate?
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What is imprinting?
When an animal learns to recognise its parents and instinctively follows them
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Is imprinting learned or innate
A mixture of both - a duck can wrongly learn instantly that a human is its parent
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What is classical conditioning?
When an animal learns passively to associate a stimulus with a more important one (such as food)
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Who is famous for classically conditioning dogs to salivate upon hearing a bell?
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What is operant conditioning?
When an animal learns actively, through trial error to associate a stimulus with reward or punishment
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Who is famous for training pigeons and rats to get food, using operant conditioning?
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What did Skinner invent?
A Skinner Box
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What can we use conditioning for?
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What are the two types of conditioning?
Operant and classical
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Give 2 examples of trained animals
Police horses (ignore other stimulus through habituation). Guide dogs (through habituation). Sniffer dogs (through habituation)
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Give 3 ways animals can communicate
Sound, visual signs and chemicals (pheromones)
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Give 3 reasons why animal commuication is important
Keeps groups together. Can protect groups if ones is "on look out". Baby animals can communicate needs to parents. Can tell each other mood = no unneeded fighting
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What can pheromones be used for?
Sexual attraction and mark the boundaries of an animals territory
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What is the waggle dance?
When honeybees move in a certain way to tell the pack where nectar is (visual)
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Why is using visual signs important?
Can show anger through facial expressions. Courtship rituals. Find food. Stay safe
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What do ethologists study?
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What did Tinbergen study?
Innate behaviour in gulls
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What did Tinbergen do?
Noticed that gulls pecked the parents' beaks to get food. He gave newborn chicks cardboard beaks with different colour spots on. They pecked at red most. Herring gull chicks innately peck at the colour red
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What did Lorenz study?
Imprinting in geese
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What did Lorenz do?
Put two groups of eggs seperately. He let group 1 see their mother first and group 2 see him first. Group one followed the natural mother but group 2 followed Lorenz and treated him as their mother = imprinting
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What did Fossey and Goodall study?
Social behaviour in apes
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What did Fossey and Goodall do?
They noticed by recording them for decades: Apes work together to find food. Protect each other from predators. There are social ranks in a group. Apes groom each other = clean + social bonds
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What is a choice chamber?
A container divided into two or more sections, each with a different stimulus
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Which areas of the animal kingdom does monogamy occur?
Birds and some humans
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Give 4 ways animals can attract a mate
Pheromones. Courtship ritual. Song/mating call. Males fight for the female
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Give a reason why a female needs to select a mate carefully
If she picks one from a closely related species, she'll give birth to an infertile hybrid which ruins her chances of passing down her genes
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Give 3 reasons why young stick with their parents for a while
Protection. Food. Teaching skills
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Give 2 reasons why plants use chemicals to attract insects
Attract pollination. Attract insect's predators
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How do plants warn other plant about predetation?
One releases pheromones when under attack for other plants to start making poison or make their leaves harder to digest
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What is co-evolution?
When 2 organisms evolve in response to each other
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Give 2 broad examples of co-evolution
Plants and their pollinators. Plants and insects that eat them
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Give 3 ways humans changed their behaviour in order to survive the ice age
Build shelters (or live in caves). Used fire. Wore warm clothing. Increased hunting for animals. Make and use tools. Development of communicative skills such as language
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What does biotechnology mean?
Using living organisms to produce people with useful products and services
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What is a fermenter?
A huge vat full of culture medium which microorganisms can grow and reproduce in
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What is meant by the term, "culture medium"?
The liquid inside the fermenter
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Give 5 things that must be used in a fermenter to produce the optimum amount of product
Motorised stirrer. Aseptic conditions. Right temperature. Air. Food.
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How can temperature be controlled?
Using a water jacket that you can vary the temperature of the water in so that enzymes do not get denatured
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Why do we need a motorised stirrer?
To keep the culture well mixed with O2 and nutrients
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Why is air needed?
For organisms to get the energy they need to grow from aerobic respiration
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What can we get from fungi?
Mycoprotein which is used to produce meat substitutes such as Quorn.
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Why is mycoprotein better than meat?
It contains more protein and fibre, but less fat
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What bacteria is fermented to produce mycoprotein?
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What is fermented to produce yoghurt?
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What is fermentation?
When microorganisms break down sugars to release energy - usually anaerobically
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What bacteria is fermented in the production of yoghurt?
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What causes the milk to solidify and become yoghurt?
Lactic acid from the fermentation of the lactose sugar in milk
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Give 3 advantages of using microorganisms in food production
Easy to look after. Grow quickly. Produced regardless of climate outside. Can use waste products from agriculture as their culture medium. Cheaper than other methods for manufacturers
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What does biological washing powder contain?
The chemicals and an enzyme to act as a catalyst
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Give 3 enzymes used in biological washing powders
Proteases. Lipases. Carbohydrases.
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Give another use of enzymes
To make some foods
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Which enzyme is used in cheese making?
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Which enzyme is used in making sweets?
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How was chymosin originally produced?
Extracted from the lining of a calf's stomach in rennet
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How do we get chymosin now?
The genes from the calf have been inserted into yeast and allowed to multiply on an industry sclae
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What does invertase do?
Converts sucrose into glucose and fructose
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Why is converting sucrose into glucose and fructose, using invertase good?
It produces a lower calorie alternative because less sugar had to be used due to the fact that fructose and glucose are sweeter than sucrose
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Why do we immobilise enzymes?
To make them easier to remove
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Give 2 ways enzymes can be immobilised
Trapping them in alginate beads or attached to an insoluble material.
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Give the 3 steps of making lactose-free milk
1) Immobilse the lactase. 2) Set up a column of immobilised lactase. 3) Make the lactose-free milk by dripping the milk through the column.
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What enzyme do lactose-intolerant people lack?
Lactase (which breaks down the lactose). We break down the lactose in lactose-free milk before they drink it
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How can you immobilise lactase?
Mix sodium alginate and lactase in a syringe together. Add one drop at a time to a beaker of CaCl. Beads will form with the immobilised enzyme inside
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What is pectinase used for?
To extract apple juice
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How does pectinase work?
It breaks down pectin in an apple's cell wall, making them release their juices
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Which bacteria is used to genetically modify plants?
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Why would we GM bacteria?
To produce human insulin
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Give 1 of the 4 steps in GM
1) Cut the gene from the human chromosome for insulin using a restriction enzyme. It recognises the sequence of DNA to know where the insulin gene is
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Give 2 of the 4 steps in GM
2) The plasmid of a bacteria is cut using a restriction enzyme, leaving sticky ends
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Give 3 of 4 steps in GM
3) The human insulin gene and plasmid is mixed together and ligase enzyme is added to produce recombinant DNA
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Give 4 of 4 steps in GM
4) The modified plasmid is inserted into bacteria and allowed to multiply in a fermenter
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What are the sticky ends?
Unpaired bases in DNA ,that will join (stick) to the corresponding base
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What is recombination DNA
When the two parts of DNA are stuck together (sticky ends filled in)
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Give the first of 4 steps in the GM of plants
1) Get a plant already resistant to herbicide and work out which gene is repsonsible - cut this using a restriction enzyme
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Give the second of 4 steps in the GM of plants
2) Remove the circular DNA from the agrobaterium tumafaciens, cut it and insert he herbicide resistant gene
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Give the third of 4 steps in the GM of plants
3) Put the completed loop into the agrobacterium tumafaciens
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Give the fourth of the 4 steps in the GM of plants
4) Allow the the bacteria to insert its genes into the plant's DNA. Then grow in a fermenter
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How could biotechnology help people in countries that don't have enough food
Increase crop yields by GMing to be resistant to pests. GM to grow better in dry areas. Can use golden rice to combat vitamin A deficiency in Asia using extra Beta-Carotene
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Why do people think that biotech cannot help with food shortages
People don't go hungry because they're poor - it's because of poverty. Countries make become dependent on companies who sell GM seeds. You might have poor soil, then nothing would grow
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What is a flavonoid?
A molecule in a plant that has antioxidant effects
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How do genetically modified tomatoes have anti-cancer properties?
Snapdragons contain flavonoids and we have GMed purple tomatoes which contain flavonoids from snapdragons. It's easy to get antioxidants this way, which are thought to reduce the risk of cancer
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Why do GMed tomatoes have their issues?
The flavonoid may change the taste. We don't know for sure about the long term effects
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Which 3 ways can we increase food production to feed more people in the world?
Reduce pest numbers. Selective breeding programmes. GMing plants.
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How can pest numbers be reduced?
Use insecticides. Crop rotation. Living predators for the pests e.g. ladybirds eat aphids
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How does selective breeding lead to more food?
Parent plants with favourable characteristics are chosen and bred to produce offspring with the best characteristics. E.g. bigger ears of wheat on each plant
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What are biofuels made form?
Biomass (plants, animals and their waste)
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What is biogas?
The gas released when microorganisms decompose waste
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What is the composition of biogas?
70% methane, 30% carbon dioxide
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What is biodiesel made from?
Animal fats, vegetable oil and waste cooking oil
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Why is using biodiesel good?
Cars don't have to be changed much to accept it
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What is ethanol?
An alcohol that can be used to fuel cars, such as in Brazil
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How is ethanol produced?
Using yeast to ferment glucose
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What is gasohol?
A mixture of ethanol and petrol
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Give 3 reasons why biofuels are "green" fuels
It's sustainable, the plants can be replaced. The plants photosynthesised whilst alive. Burning biofuels releases less particulates. Doesn't release much SO2.
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What are particulates?
Dangerous, dirty parts of a burned fuel that can cause lung issues
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Give a reason why biofuels are bad
Cars and power stations need to be adapted = expensive. Less land for growing food = food shortages
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Other cards in this set
Where does ultrafiltration happen?
Between the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule
What two things are left in the blood in ultrafiltration?
Give 3 things squeezed through into the Bowman's capsule
What is ultrafiltration?