Biology - B3

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 06-02-16 16:26
What is the definition of species?
A species is a group of organisms that can breed together to produce fertile offspring.
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How is a cactus well adapted for desert conditions (hot and dry)?
They have a round shape giving them a small surface area compared to their volume to reduce water loss. They store water in their thick stem to use when there isn't much around. They also have a waxy layer to further reduce water loss.
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How are fish well adapted for aquatic environments?
Fish have gills to extract oxygen from the water. They have tail fins with a large surface area to help push themselves through the water and they are streamlined so they can move through water with little resistance.
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Why do individuals of the same species have variations?
They have variations because of genetic differences that are caused by mutations.
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How does natural selection work?
Genes may mutate in an organism which causes variation. Some variations give them a better chance of survival so when they reproduce these genes will get passed on and gradually become more common making the species better able to survive.
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What is selective breeding?
Selective breeding is when humans deliberately choose a feature they want an animal to have and only breeding the ones that have that feature.
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Does selective breeding help the animal survive?
It can but most of the time humans do this to get more for them like breeding cows that produce more milk etc
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How did the very first living things evolve?
The very first living things were simple and then then evolved into more complex and varied organisms.
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How can animals of the same species become two different species?
If two groups of the same species become separated then if a gene mutation occurs in one group it will only get passed on it that group and not to the other. Also if the environment is different in the two places the group will adapt to suit that.
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How do fossils provide good evidence for evolution?
Fossils provide good evidence as it allows for scientists to see species becoming more and more complex.
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How does DNA provide good evidence for evolution?
Scientists can use DNA to spot similarities and differences in the DNA and work out how an organism has evolved.
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How does Lamarck explain how species evolved?
He said that if certain characteristics were used a lot by an animal then it would improve that characteristic and get passed on to it's children. (A giraffe stretching for leaves getting a longer neck then passing the long neck on to it's offspring)
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What does biodiversity mean?
It means the variety of life on Earth. It includes things like the number of species on earth, the range of different types of organisms and the genetic variation between organisms of the same species.
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Why is maintaining biodiversity important?
Because the more plants we have available for more food resources we have, Many medicines need living things in order to make them and if they become extinct then the chemical is no longer available.
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What does the correlation between growth of the worlds population and species extinctions suggest?
It suggests that a lot of extinction is happening due to human activities.
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How can humans cause extinction directly and indirectly?
Directly - hunting the animals until they are all dead. Indirectly - destroying an animals habitat or introducing a new species that it can't compete with.
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How are organisms grouped together (Classified)?
They are grouped together according to similarities in their characteristics and the physical features that they have.
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What are the five kingdoms that all of the species can be grouped into?
Bacteria, fungi, algae, plants and animals.
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Why is classifying animals pretty useful?
Classification shows us the evolutionary relationships between different organisms.
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What factors are essential for life for all organisms?
Light, food, oxygen/carbon dioxide and water.
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What happens is one of these factors are in short supply?
Different species have to then compete for it which means that some organisms won't survive.
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What is it called when organisms depend on other organisms for survival?
Interdependence
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What rapid changes in an environment cause species to become extinct?
Environmental changes meaning the species may not be able to adapt to the change, a competitor may be introduced into the environment or and organism it depends on may become extinct.
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Where does all the energy in an ecosystem come from?
All the energy comes from the sun.
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How is the energy transferred between organisms?
Energy is transferred between organisms when the animals eat plants or the animals eat other animals.
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How is energy lost at each stage of a food chain?
Energy is lost through respiration and waste produces (poop)
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Through what process is carbon dioxide taken back out of the atmosphere?
Photosynthesis.
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How does the carbon get into animals in a food chain or web?
When an animal eats a tree or plant then the carbon gets taken into that wind chime.
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How does the Carbon get back into the atmosphere?
Through plant and animal respiration, combustion (burning) and carbon released from decomposition.
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How does the carbon get into the ground and what does it turn into after millions of years/
When the animals and plants die carbon compounds get into the soil after being decomposed by micro-organisms in the soil.
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What is nitrogen needed for?
Nitrogen is needed to make proteins for growth.
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What is nitrogen fixation?
It's the process of turning nitrogen from the air into nitrogen compounds in the soil which plants can use.
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What are the two main ways in which nitrogen fixation can occur/
lightning and nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in roots and soil.
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What are the four different micro-organisms involved in the nitrogen cycle?
Decomposers, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and denitriifying bacteria.
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What do decomposers do?
They decompose proteins and urea and turn them into ammonia.
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What do nitrifying bacteria do?
It turns ammonia in decaying matter into nitrates (nitrification)
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What do nitrogen-fixing bacteria do?
It turns atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen compounds that plants can use.
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What does denitrifying bacteria do?
It turns nitrates back into atmospheric nitrogen (gas).
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What non-living indicators can you use to measure environmental change?
Temperature, nitrate level and carbon dioxide level.
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What could an increase in nitrate level in water mean?
An increase in nitrate levels could be caused by sewage or fertilisers entering the water. Meaning that the water is being polluted.
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What organisms can be used as living indicators?
Lichen, mayfly nymphs and phytoplankton.
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What does it mean if there is allot of lichen?
If there is allot of lichen then it means that the air is clean there.
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What does it mean if there is allot of mayfly nymphs in water?
If there is allot of mayfly nymphs in a river it indicates that the water is clean and has no sewage in it.
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What does it mean if there is allot of phytoplankton in a river or lake?
If there is allot of phytoplankton in a river it could mean that there are fertilisers or sewage in the water.
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What is the definition of sustainability?
Sustainability means meeting the needs of today's population without harming the environment so that the future generations can still meet their own needs.
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Why is throwing away packaging not sustainable?
It isn't sustainable because the resources used t make that bag can't be re-used, lots of fossil fuels have been burned to make that packaging and the waste that is thrown on landfill sites damages the environment.
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How can the sustainability of a bag be improved?
Using the renewable materials to make the bag, Using less energy to make the bag and Creating less pollution.
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Card 2

Front

How is a cactus well adapted for desert conditions (hot and dry)?

Back

They have a round shape giving them a small surface area compared to their volume to reduce water loss. They store water in their thick stem to use when there isn't much around. They also have a waxy layer to further reduce water loss.

Card 3

Front

How are fish well adapted for aquatic environments?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why do individuals of the same species have variations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does natural selection work?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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