Biology B2

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What are the classification groups for organsims?
Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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How does the artificial classification system work?
It is based on characteristics to make identification easier
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How does the natural classification system work?
It is based on evolutionary relationships, and is much more detailed than artificial
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How do scienctists classify organsims?
By sequencing (the bases in) their DNA
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What is the definition of a species?
A groups of organsisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring
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What systems are all organisms named by?
The binomial system
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Where do the two parts of the name come from?
The first part comes from the Genus, and the second part comes from the species
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Why is it difficult to place animals into distinct groups?
Because they are constantly evolving, and new ones are being discovered all the time
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Why do bacteria present a problem using the fertile offspring idea?
Because they reproduce asexually, so cannot be classified
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Why can't mules be classified as a species?
Because they are infertile, so they are called Hybrids
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Why might animals from the same group have different features?
Because they live in different habitats
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What two methods can be used to represent feeding relationships between organisms?
Pyramids of biomass, and pyramids of numbers
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What do pyramids of biomass show?
They show the dry mass of the material
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Name two reasons why they might look different to pyramids of numbers
the produces are very large, or a small parasite lives on a large animal
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Which pyramid is better at representing trophic levels?
Pyramid of biomass
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Why are pyramids of biomass difficult to construct?
Because they require the dry mass of the organism, which means the water would have to be removed, which would kill it, and that some organisms feed from more than one trophic level
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What is some energy used for as it flows along a food chain?
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What other ways is the energy transferred?
Heat from respiration, egestion and excretion
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Why isn't the material lost at each stage wasted?
Because the material is used by decomposers that can then start another food chain
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How would you calculate energy efficiency?
energy used for growth / energy input
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Why does carbon have to be recycled?
So it can become available to other organisms
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How is carbon dioxide removed from the air by plants?
Through photosynthesis
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How else is carbon dioxide released into the air?
Plants and animals respiring, soil bacteria and fungi acting as decomposers, the burning of fossil fuels (combustion)
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What absorbs carbon dioxide from the air?
By oceans
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How can the carbon in limestone be returned into the air?
Through weathering and during volcanic eruptions
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Explain the nitrogen cycle
Plants take in nitrogen as nitrates from the soil to make protein for growth, feeding passes the nitrogen along the food chain, the nitrogen compounds in dead organisms are broken down by decomposers and returned to the soil
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What microorganisms are responsible for the recycling of nitrogen?
soil bacteria and fungi, which convert proteins into ammonia. Nitrifying bacteria convert the ammonia into nitrates. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrates into nitrogen gas. Nitrogen fixing bacteria, living in root nodules and fix nitrogen gas
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What do decomposers need to break down dead material?
Oxygen and a suitable PH
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Why will decompostition in waterlogged soils be slower?
Because there will be less oxygen
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Why will acidic conditions slow decay?
Because the PH is too acidic
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What animals compete with eachother for resources?
Animals that live in the same habitat
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What animals compete with eachother for mates?
Animals of the same species
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What does an ecological niche describe?
The habitat that the organism lives in, and its role in that habitat
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What is intrespecific competition?
Competition between different species
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What is intraspecific competition?
Comptition between the same species
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Which competition is more significant and why?
Intraspecific because they will be competing for the same food and resources
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Why do both predator and prey show cyclical changes?
Because when there are lots of prey, more predators survive so their numbers increase, this means that the increased number of predators eat more prey, s prey numbers drop. More predators starve so their numbers drop.
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What does parasite feed on?
A host
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What is mutualism?
When both the host and the parasite benefit as a result of their relationship
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How do pea plants and bacteria benefit from mutualism?
In the nodules in their roots, live nitrogen fixing bacteria. The bacteria turn nitrogen into nitrogen containing chemicals and give some to the pea plant. The pea plant gives the bacteria some of their sugars produced by photosynthsis
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Name some adaptions of animals that live in cold conditions
They have thick fur, a fat insulation layer, and have small ears which helps by decreasing their surface area to volume ratio
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How do some animals avoid changes in temperature during the year?
They migrate long distances, or slow down bodily processes and hibernate
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How do penguin flippers reduce heat loss?
The blood going into the flipper, warms up the blood leaving the flipper to stop it from cooling the rest of the body
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Name one boichemical adaption that animals may have in the cold?
anitfreeze proteins in their cells
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How do animal increase heat loss in warmer climates?
They have little hair, they are small in size and have larger ears. They need to have a large surface area to volume ratio, so they can lose more heat
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What behavioural adaptations can be used in hot climates?
Panting or licking their fur
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How do camels cope with such dry conditions?
They produce concentrated urine which means they cansurvive with very little water
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How do cacti reduce water loss?
Their leaves have been reduced to spines. They also have deep roots and can store water in the stem
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What are extremophiles?
Organisms that can survive hot conditions
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Why are polar bears called specialists?
Because they are well adapted to living in a specific climate
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Why are rats called generalists?
Because they can survive is several different habitats
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What does the natural selection evolution theory say?
It says that if animals are better adapted to their enviroment, they and the following generations will be more likely to survive
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What is survival of the fittest?
Only the best adapted will survive, so the best genes will be passed on to future generations
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What can happen over time because of natural selection?
A new species is formed
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What is geographical isolation?
When two animals from the ame species are prevented from matings because they live in different areas
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Why is natural selection so difficult to study?
Because it usually occurs over thousands of years, so the effects are difficult to see
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Why did so many people disagree with Darwins ideas at first?
Because there was a lack of evidence, and they thought that God had created all species
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Why is it much more widely accepted today?
It explains lots of observations, and it has been discussed and tested by many different scienctists
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What are the most concerning pollutants?
Carbon dioxide (produced by excessive burning of fossil fuels), CFC'S (destroy the ozone layer), and sulfur dioxide (caues acid rain)
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What is it called when the human population of the world is growing at an ever increasing rate?
exponential growth
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Why is this happening?
Because the birth rate is exeeding the death rate
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What type of land mass records the greatest rise in populations?
Under developed land masses
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What is a carbon footprint?
The amount of pollution caused per person or organisation.
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Name two ways pollution in water or air can be measured?
The direct method, or by using indicator organisms
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What is the direct method?
using oxygen probes attached to computers
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How do you use indicator species?
By looking at their presence or absence, for example mayfly larva can only survive in clean water.
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What are the advantages of indicator organisms?
They are cheap and cannot go wrong like computing
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What are the advantages of the direct method?
It can produce accurate results at any time
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What does conservation involve?
people trying to preserve animals or plants and the habitats that they live in
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Why is this important?
It protects our food supply, prevents damage to the food chain, and protects the animals that are useful for medicines or tourists
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What is sustainable development?
taking enough resources for our current needs, but leaving enough for the future and to prevent permanent damage
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does the artificial classification system work?


It is based on characteristics to make identification easier

Card 3


How does the natural classification system work?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


How do scienctists classify organsims?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the definition of a species?


Preview of the front of card 5
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