Biology

Uses of energy released in respiration
Active transport, synthesis of large molecules, control of body temp, muscle contraction
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Aerobic Respiration Word Equation
glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy
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Anaerobic Respiration Word Equation
Glucose ---> lactic acid
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Photosynthesis Word Equation
carbon dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen
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Test For Starch
Add iodine solution (red). If it turns blue/black then starch is present.
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Plasma
Straw coloured, watery liquid, carries carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste etc
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Red Blood Cells
Biconcave shape to increase surface area, carries oxygen
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White Blood Cells
Several different types, part of immune system
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Platelets
Small, irregularly shaped, for scabs if you're injured
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Haemoglobin
Contains iron, red, if not enough iron you can suffer from anaemia, in oxygenated blood it is called oxyhaemoglobin
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Heart Rate =
Cardiac output / stroke volume
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Cardiac Output =
Stroke volume x heart rate
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Where does anaerobic respiration occur?
In the cytoplasm
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Where does aerobic respiration occur?
In the mitochondria
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Nitrogen in Plants
For shoots and growth
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Phosphorus in Plants
For healthy roots
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Potassium in Plants
For leaves
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Magnesium in Plants
For making chlorophyll
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Stem
Support, transport
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Flower
For reproduction
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Leaf
Gas exchange, photosynthesis
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Root
Anchorage, water and mineral uptake
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What did Scientists in Ancient Greece think about photosynthesis?
They though plants gained mass only by taking minerals from the soil
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What did Van Helmont do?
He did an experiment to suggest that plant growth cannot be solely due to nutrients in the soil
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What did Priestley do?
Lots of experiments that showed that oxygen is produced by plants
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Limiting Factors of Photosynthesis
Shortage of carbon dioxide, shortage of light and low temperature
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Factors of greenhouses that aid photosynthesis
High light intensity, high temperature, high concentration of carbon dioxide
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Phototropism
Growth movement of plants in response to light
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Stomata
Pores that allow entry/exit of gases. On underside of leaf. Prevents excess loss of water through pores. High co2 levels cause the guard cells to lose water, closing the stoma which prevents further water loss
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Xylem
Consists of hollow dead cells, carries water and dissolved salts from roots, through stem and out to leaves and flowers
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Phloem
Runs by the side of xylem, tube like cells, carries dissolved glucose and other substances to all parts of plant, move up and down stems to growing and storage tissues
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Mesophyll
Tissue that does photosynthesis
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Epidermal Tissue
Covers outside of the plant
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Transpiration
The movement of water and mineral salts from roots to leaves in plants
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Increasing factors for transpiration
Light intensity, temperature, air movement
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Decreasing factors for transpiration
Humidity
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Blood vessels
Carry blood between heart and rest of the body
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Valves
Prevent backflow
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Left & Right Ventricle
Pump blood to rest of the body
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Left & Right Atria
Receive blood from rest of body
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Left Side of Heart
Pumps blood to rest of body, thicker ventricle muscle wall, pumps oxygenated blood
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Right Side of Heart
Pumps deoxygenated blood, pumps blood to lungs
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Pulmonary Artery
Carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
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Aorta
Carries oxygenated blood from left ventricle to all parts of the body
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Vena Cava
Carries deoxygenated blood from upper half of body to right atrium
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Pulmonary Vein
Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium
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Veins
Carries deoxygenated blood to the heart
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Arteries
Carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
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Capillaries
Exchange materials in tissues
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Plasticity
When adult stem cells are manipulated to turn into many different cell types
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Differentiation
Process of cells becoming specialized
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Elongation
When a cell increases in size
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Plasmid DNA
Forms small circular DNA molecules, can be transferred to other cless
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Chromosomal DNA
Carries most of the genetic information within bacterial cell
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Animals in growth
Grow to finite size, all parts involved, differentiate at an early age
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Plants in growth
Grow continuously, grow at specific parts, differentiate throughout life
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Pitfall trap
Organisms trapped by placing a container in a hole in the ground
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Quadrat
Frame placed at sample site and the organisms within the frame are recorded
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Pooter
Organisms are trapped by sucking them into a container
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Chloroplasts
Contain chlorophyll to absorb light and the enzymes for reactions in photosynthesis
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Tissue
Group of specialised cells performing a particular function
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Cell
Basic structural units of living things
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Organ
More than one tissue forming a specialised structure
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Organ System
More than one organ working to perform a task
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Organism
A living being
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Bile
Made by the liver, stored in the gall bladder then given to the small intestine
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Villi
Tiny projections that line the small intestine to increase its surface area, allowing more efficient absorption of the soluble products of digestion
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Pentadactyl Limb
Forelimb with five 'fingers' or 'toes'. Discovery of this in fossils has led scientists to believe that all vertebrates directly descend from a common ancestor. This is evidence of evolution.
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Osmosis
The net diffusion of water molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration across a partially permeable membrane
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Diffusion
The passive movement of particles of a gas or any substance in solution, resulting in a net movement from a region of higher concentration to a lower concentration
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

glucose + oxygen ---> carbon dioxide + water + energy

Back

Aerobic Respiration Word Equation

Card 3

Front

Glucose ---> lactic acid

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

carbon dioxide + water ---> glucose + oxygen

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Add iodine solution (red). If it turns blue/black then starch is present.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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