Biology 3A - Life Processes

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  • Created by: RegKitty
  • Created on: 18-12-15 08:51
What is Osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high water concentration to a region of low water concentration.
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How does water move into and out of cells?
By Osmosis
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What is Diffusion?
Diffusion is where particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
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What do Exchange surface structures include?
Exchange surface structures have to allow enough of the necessary substances to pass through.
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How are exchange surfaces adapted to maximize effectiveness?
They are thin, so substances only have a short distance to diffuse. They have a large surface area so lots of a substance can diffuse at once. Exchange surfaces in animals have lots of blood vessels, to get stuff into and out of the blood quickly.
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Why does exchange substances in bigger and more complex organisms get more difficult?
The place where the substances are needed( or the waste is made) ends up being a long way away from exchange surfaces.
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What diffuses in and out of the Stomata?
Carbon Dioxide diffuses in and oxygen and water vapour diffuse out.
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How is the size of the stomata controlled?
Guard Cells close the stomata if the plant is losing water faster than it is being replaced by the roots.
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What would happen to the plant without guard cells?
the plant would wilt.
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What does the flattened shape of the leaf help with?
It helps increase the area of the exchange surface so that it's more effective.
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What conditions does the leaf need to be in for evaporation to happen faster?
Hot, Dry and Windy.
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Where are the lungs placed?
In the Thorax, the top part of your body.
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What protects the lungs?
The ribs.
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Where does the air that you breathe in go?
Goes through the trachea which splits into two tubes called bronchi, one goes to each lung.
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What happens to the bronchi next?
They split into progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles.
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Where do the bronchioles end at?
They end as small bags called alveoli where the gas exchange takes place.
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What is ventilation?
The movement of air into and out of the lungs
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When breathing in, what happens to the intercostal muscles and diaphragm?
They contract
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When breathing in, what happens to the thorax?
Thorax volume increases
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When breathing in, what happens to the pressure?
The pressure decreases, drawing air in.
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When breathing out, what happens to the intercotal muscles and diaphragm?
They relax
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What happens to the thorax when breathing out?
Thorax volume decreases
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What happens to the pressure when breathing out?
The pressure is increased so air is forced out.
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What are Ventilators?
Machines that move air into or out of the lungs. these help people who can't breathe by themselves.
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What is the job of the lungs?
To transfer oxygen to the blood and to remove waste carbon dioxide from it.
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How are the alveoli adapted to maximize the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
Enormous surface area, moist lining for dissolving gases, very thin walls, a good blood supply.
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Where are the villi situated?
In the small intestine.
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Why does the villi increase the surface area?
More digested food is absorbed much more quickly into the blood.
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How are root hair cells specialized for absorbing water and minerals?
long hairs which stick out into the soil and gives the plant a big surface area for absorbing water and mineral ions from the soil.
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How do root hairs take in minerals?
Active Transport
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Why do root hair cells use active transport?
The concentration of minerals is usually higher in the root hair cell than in the soil around it.
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What is active transport?
The process by which substances are absorbed against the concentration gradient from a low to high concentration with the use of energy from respiration to make it work.
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Why is active transport used in the gut?
there is a low concentration of nutrients in the gut but a high concentration of nutrients in the blood.
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What two types of vessels do flowering plants have?
Xylem and Phloem
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What do phloem and Xylem tubes transport?
Phloem transports dissolved sugars and Xylem transports water.
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what direction do dissolve sugars transport in the phloem tubes?
Both directions
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Where does the water travel from the xylem tubes?
From the roots to the stem and leaves in the transpiration system.
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What is transpiration?
The flow of water through the plant from the roots to the leaves.
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What is transpiration caused by?
Evaporation and Diffusion
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What is the circulatory system's main function?
To get food and oxygen to every cell in the body.
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What does the right side of the heart do?
Pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen. The blood then returns to the heart.
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What does the left side of the heart do?
Pumps oxygenated blood around all the other organs of the body.
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What are the walls of the heart made out of?
Muscle Tissue
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What do the valves do?
Prevents blood from flowing backwards.
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What are the four chambers?
Right Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Atrium and Left Ventricle.
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What are the blood vessels and their function
Arteries - carry blood away from the heart. Capillaries - involved in exchanging materials at the tissues. Veins - carry blood to the heart
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Why are the artery walls strong and elastic?
They carry blood that are at high pressure.
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How are arteries adapted?
they contatin thick layers of muscle to make them strong, and elastic fibres to allow them to stretch and spring back.
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Why can capillaries diffuse substance in and out?
They have permeable walls
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How are capillaries adapted?
They walls are one cell thick, this increases the rate of diffusion by decreasing the distance over which it occurs.
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Why do veins have a larger internal lumen?
Help the blood flow.
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What else do veins contain?
Valves to help the blood flow in the right direction.
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How are red blood cells adapted to their function?
have a doughnut shape to give a large surface area for absorbing oxygen. They don't have a nucleus - allows more room to carry oxygen..
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What do the white blood cells do?
Defend against disease.
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How do the white blood cells protect the body?
They ingest microorganisms, produce antibodies and antitoxins and have a nucleus.
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What do platelets do?
Clot the blood to prevent excessive bleeding and to stop microorganisms getting in. (internally and externally)
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What is the plasma?
Carries everything in the blood and nutrients like glucose and amino acids. Carbon Dioxide, urea, Hormones, antibodies and antitoxins.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How does water move into and out of cells?


By Osmosis

Card 3


What is Diffusion?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do Exchange surface structures include?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How are exchange surfaces adapted to maximize effectiveness?


Preview of the front of card 5
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