Biology

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  • Created by: Amy-C
  • Created on: 13-05-18 18:29
How can bacteria make us feel ill?
They can make you feel ill by producing toxins (poisons) that damage your cells and tissues
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Give one way that fungi can cause disease
Fungi can grow and penetrate human skin and the surface of plants causing diseases. They can produce spores, which can be spread to other plants and animals
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Give 3 ways that pathogens can be spread between people
Water / Air / Direct contact
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How are mosquitoes involved in the spread of malaria?
The mosquitoes are vectors - they pick up the malarial protist when they feed on an infected animal. Every time the mosquito feeds on another animal, it infects it by inserting the protist into the animals blood vessels
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What type of pathogen causes Salmonella food poisoning?
Salmonella is a type of bacteria that causes food poisoning
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How can the spread of gonorrhoea be prevented?
To prevent the spread of gonorrhoea, people can be treated with antibiotics and should use barrier methods of contraception, such as condoms
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How can destroying vectors help to prevent the spread of disease?
By getting rid of the organisms that spread disease, you can prevent the disease from being passed on. Vectors that are insects can be killed using insecticides or by destroying their habitat so that they can no longer breed
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What is the name for the molecules which antibodies lock onto on the surface of a pathogen?
Antigens
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What are antitoxins?
An antibody that counteract toxins produced by the invading bacteria
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How does antibiotic resistance arise in a population of bacteria?
Bacteria can mutate - sometimes the mutations cause them to be resistant to (not killed by) an antibiotic
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Which plant does the painkiller aspirin originate from?
Willow
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Name the scientist who discovered penicillin
Alexander Fleming
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What 2 things are drugs tested on in preclinical testing?
Human cells and tissues / Live animals
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What is meant by a drug's toxicity?
How harmful it is
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What is a monoclonal antibody?
Monoclonal antibodies are produced from lots of clones of a single white blood cell. This means all the antibodies are identical and will only target one specific protein antigen
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Where are the B-lymphocytes taken from when making monoclonal antibodies?
A mouse
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Why might fluorescent dye be added to a monoclonal antibody?
Monoclonal antibodies are made that will bind to the specific molecules you are looking for. If the molecules are present in the sample you’re analysing the monoclonal antibodies will attach to them, and they can be detected using the dye
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Why aren’t monoclonal antibodies used to deliver drugs as much as scientists hoped they would be?
Monoclonal antibodies cause more side effects than were originally expected
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What do plants use magnesium ions for?
Magnesium ions are needed for making chlorophyll, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants without enough magnesium suffer from chlorosis and have yellow leaves
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The common signs for when a plant gets a disease:
Stunted growth / Spots on the leaves / Patches of decay / Abnormal growths / Malformed stems or leaves / Discolouration
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Give one chemical defence that a plant may have to defend itself
Some can produce antibacterial chemicals which kill bacteria
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Give one mechanical defence that a plant may have to defend itself
Some plants have adapted to have thorns and hairs which stop animals from touching and eating them
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give one way that fungi can cause disease

Back

Fungi can grow and penetrate human skin and the surface of plants causing diseases. They can produce spores, which can be spread to other plants and animals

Card 3

Front

Give 3 ways that pathogens can be spread between people

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How are mosquitoes involved in the spread of malaria?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of pathogen causes Salmonella food poisoning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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