Biology

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  • Created by: Amy-C
  • Created on: 13-05-18 15:41
What is a tissue?
A tissue is a group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. It can include more than one type of cell
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Give an example of a human organ system
The digestive system
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Why can enzymes be described as biological catalysts?
Living things produce enzymes that act as biological catalysts. Enzymes produce the need for high temperatures and we only have enzymes to speed up the useful chemical reactions in the body
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What is a catalyst?
A catalyst is a substance which increases the speed of a reaction, without being changed or used up in the reaction
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What does it mean when an enzyme has been 'denatured'?
If it gets too hot, some of the bonds holding the enzyme together break. This changes the shape of the enzymes active site, so the substrate won't fit any more
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Describe how you could investigate the effect of ph on the rate of amylase activity
The enzyme amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose. Its easy to detect starch using iodine solution - if starch is present, the iodine solution will change from browny-orange to blue-black
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List the 3 places where amylase is made in the human body
The salivary glands / The pancreas / The small intestine
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What is the role of lipases?
Lipases convert lipids into glycerol and fatty acids
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Where is bile stored?
In the gall bladder
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Name the solution that you would use to test for the presence of lipids in a food sample
Sudan III stain solution
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Explain the role that alveoli play in gas exchange
The blood passing next to the alveoli has just returned to the lungs from the rest of the body, so it contains lots of CO2 and very little O2. O2 diffuses out of the alveolus into the blood. CO2 diffuses out of the blood into the alveolus
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Explain why the circulatory system in humans is described as a double circulatory system:
There are two circuits from the heart: The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to take in oxygen. The lft ventricle pumps oxygenated blood around all the other organs of the body
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Name the 4 chambers of the heart
Right atrium / Left atrium / Right ventricle / Left ventricle
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How are arteries adapted to carry blood away from the heart?
The heart pumps the blood out at high pressure so the artery walls are strong and elastic .
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Why do red blood cells not have a nucleus?
It allows more room to carry oxygen
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Name the pigment in red blood cells
Haemoglobin
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What is the function of plasma?
This is a pale straw-coloured liquid which carries just about everything
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Give 2 advantages of statins
By reducing the amount of 'bad' cholesterol in the blood, statins can reduce the risk of strokes, coronary heart disease and heart attacks / Some studies suggest that statins may also help prevent some other diseases
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What name is given to a replacement heart valve that has been man-made?
Mechanical valves
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Give a factor other than disease that can affect health
Stress
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Give an example of where different types of disease might interact in the body
Immune system ( Communicable disease ) / Infection or virus / Mental health - Direct or Indirect
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Give one risk factor for type 2 diabetes
Obesity
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What type of tumour is not cancerous?
Benign
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List the tissues that make up a leaf
Epidermal tissue / Palisade mesophyll tissue / Spongy mesophyll tissue / Xylem / Phloem / Meristem tissue
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Explain how the structure of the upper epidermal tissue in a leaf is related to its function
The epidermal tissues are covered with a waxy cuticle, which helps to reduce water loss by evaporation. The upper epidermis is transparent so that light can pass through it to the palisade layer
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What is the function of phloem?
Made of columns of elongated living cells with small pores in the end walls to allow cell sap to flow through. They transport food substances (mainly dissolved sugars) made in the leaves to the rest of the plant for immediate use or for storage
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What is transpiration?
Transpiration is caused by the evaporation and diffusion of water from a plants surface. Most transpiration happens at the leaves
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How could you measure the rate of transpiraton?
By using a potometer
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Name the type of cell that helps open and close stomata
Guard cells
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give an example of a human organ system

Back

The digestive system

Card 3

Front

Why can enzymes be described as biological catalysts?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a catalyst?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does it mean when an enzyme has been 'denatured'?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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