Biology 1

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  • Created by: pheegrace
  • Created on: 02-05-16 10:33
What is the body's first line of defence?
tears containing enzymes(lysozyme) to kill microorganisms, useful microorganisms on skin compete with pathogens, mucus traps and cilia move mucus,dirt+microorganisms up windpipe, HCl kills microorganisms from food
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What is the body's second line of defence?
Phagocytes carry out phagocytosis where surrounds, engulfs, digests microbe using enzyme. The components gotten rid of or used by WBC
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Whats the body's third line of defence?
Lymphocytes produce specific antibodies to fit on specific antigens to destroy pathogen. some pathogens release toxins with are destroyed by antitoxins released by WBC that stick to toxins
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What do antibiotics kill?
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Who discovered penecillin?
Andrew Fleming
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Whats a mutation?
when bacteria reproduce quickly there are random mutations that cause resistant strains of bacteria that are unaffected by antibiotics (e.g. MRSA)
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What is the aseptic technique?
sterilise innculating loop in red hot flame and let cool>dip loop in bacteria and zigzag on agar>replace lid quickly>seal lid but not all way so anaerobic bacteria dont grow(harmful)
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What is in the CNS?
brain, spinal cord, nerves
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What is a bundle of neurones?
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What happens in a coordinated response?
stimulus>sensory receptor>sensory neurone>brain+spinal cord>motor neurone>effector>response
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What happens in the reflex arc?
fast,automatic response where brain bypassed=stimulus>receptors>sensory neurone>relay neurone>motor neurone>effector>response
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What is a synapse?
chemicals(neurotransmitters) diffuse between two neurones via synapse to pass on electrical impulse
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What is a hormone?
chemical messenger, secreted by glands, travel in bloodstream to target organs
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What are some glands?
thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, testes, ovary, pancreas
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How is homeostasis maintained?
water-sweat,urine,breath salt/ion-sweat,urine temp-warm=shiver,goosebumps,vasocon cold=vasodil, hairs down sugars-pancreas releases hormones
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What is ovulation?
day 14 where egg released
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What are the menstrual hormones and where are they produced?
oestrogen=ovary, LH(luitenising hormone)=pituitary, FSH(follicle stimulating hormone)=pituitary
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How does the contraceptive pill stop women getting pregnant?
contains oestrogen to prevent release of egg, inhibits FSH production so no eggs mature, no mature eggs=no pregnancy
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How do fertility drugs help woman get pregnant?
Artificial FSH stimulates eggsto mature and triggers oestrogen production
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What is IVF?
Doctors collect eggs from mother and fertilise with sperm from father outside body, fertilised eggs develop to embryos and insert to womb. FSH given to mature as many eggs as possible and LH given to ensure all egs released.
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What are plant shoots sensitive to?
grow towards light and away from gravity
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What are roots sensitive to?
grow towards water and gravity
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What is a tropism?
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What is auxin?
hormone controlling the response, stimulates growth in shoot, inhibits growth in roots
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What is rooting powder?
take plant cutting to produce clone, dip in rooting powder to stimulate growth of new roots
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What is weedkiller?
high doses of plant hormones making them grow rapidly and uncontrolled which kills them
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Why do we test new drugs?
safety and effectiveness
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What is the testing procedure?
pre-clinical testing=cells,tissues,live animals to see if safe>clinical testing=healthy colunteers to see side effects+safety the few patients with disease for further side effects+effective then more patients with disease find optimum dose+effective
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What is a placebo?
no active ingredients, check drug is thing making people better
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What is the control group?
not given new drug
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What is aerobic respiration?
glucose+oxygen->water+carbon dioxide+energy, in mitochondria, energy used to build new molecules, muscle contractions,maintain body temp
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What is anaerobic respiration?
glucose->lactic acid+little energy, not enough oxygen overcome by increase depth of breath to pay oxygen debt+remove lactic acid(ache+fatigue), lactic acid oxidised=water and co2
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What are stem cells?
unspecialised cells found in bone marrow=adult stem cells that are multipotent(can become some cells) or embryos=embryonic stem cells that are pluripotent(become all cells)
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What genders are XX and XY?
XX=female XY=male
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Whats an allele?
diff version of same gene
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Whats a phenotype?
physical characteristic
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Whats a genotype?
genes you have
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Whats heterozygous?
2 of the alleles are different Bb
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Whats homozygous?
2 of the alleles are the same BB or bb
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What are statins?
drug that lowers cholesterol by reduces cholesterol liver produces
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Whats thalidomide?
test as sleeping pill not test on pregnant woman, given to treat morning sickness but babies born deformed(arms and legs) now used to treat leprosy+there are ore thorough drug tests
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What does dependent mean?
feel cant manage without a drug and constantly crave it
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What does addiction mean?
feel ill after stop taking drug and may suffer from unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
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What are withdrawal symptoms?
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What is alcohol?
LEGAL, slows nervous system(relax), lack self control,unconsciuos,coma,feel more awake but actually depressant, long term=liver damage+brain damage
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What is nicotine?
LEGAL, addictive drug in cigarettes, heart beat faster, increase rest heart rate can cause stress for heart leading to heart disease
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What is heroin?
ILLEGAL, highly addictive, quickly hooked, slows way body works, strong painkiller,first dose=dizzy+vomit, overdose=coma,death,repsiratory failure
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What is ecstasy?
ILLEGAL, liver,kidney,heart probs, short term=anxious,panic attack,confusion,paranoia,psychosis, side effects=dilate pupils,tingle,tight jaw,raise body temp,heart beat faster
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What is cannabis?
relaxes,happy,sick,talkative,giggles,munchies,halluciate,anxoius,panic,bad coordination,increase heart rate=blood pressure,lung cancer,cancer,worse asthma,link with mental health issues(depress+schizophrenia)as has chemical triggers mental illness
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What are stimulants?
boost alertness by increase heart+breath rates, stimulate body mentally+physically, act on CNS, e.g cocaine,amphetamine,caffiene
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what are anabolic steroids?
synthetic(manmade) steroid hormone that promotes muscle growth, enhances looks and performance
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What are performance enhancing drugs?
illegal/prescribed, taken because:pressure to succeed,believe others take,pressure from gov,money reward for win,lack access to facilities/support, expectation for winning from community+media
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For and Against performance enhancing drugs?
-=unfair advantage,cheating,some illegal,banned +=others have better facilities which is advantage
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How is a desert animal adapted?
large SA:volume, efficient with water, good in hot conditions, camouflage
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How is an arctic animal adapted?
small SA:volume, well insulated, camouflage
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How is a desert plant adapted?
small SA:volume, water storage tissues, max water absorption
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What do plants compete for?
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What do animals compete for?
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What are living factors?
infectious disease,predators,prey/food source,competitors
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What are non-living factors?
temp,rainfall, air/water pollution
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What are indicator species?
lichen=more where clean air, mayfly larvae=more where clean water, rat tailed maggots+sludgeworms=ore where high levels of water pollution
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What are non-living indicators?
satellites(temp of sea+amount of snow), automatic weather stations(atmospheric temp), rain gauge(rainfall), dissolved oxygen meters (water pollution)
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What is decay?
plants take in carbon,oxygen,hydrogen+nitrogen from soil/air>return to environment when dies>decay by being broken down by microorganisms(best in warm,moist conitions with plenty of oxygen)
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What is sexual reproduction?
fusion of male and female gametes as 2 parents so offspring has mix of genes
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What is asexual reproduction?
only one parent,no fusion of gametes, no mix chromosomes, no genetic variation between parent and offspring, offspring is identical+clone
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What is genetic engineering?
cut out useful gene and insert into bacteria then grow bacteria(reproduce), GM crops=resistant to virus,insect+herbicide-reduce biodiversity+unsafe+get into nature+increase yield, Gene therapy=working genes into cystic fibrosis sufferers
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How can a plant be cloned?
cuttings from parent plant that are planted to produce clone quick and cheap OR plant cell in growth medium+hormones and grow into clones-quick,need little space,all year round(tissue culture)
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How can an animal be cloned?
embryo transplant OR adult cell cloning
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Problems with cloning?
fewer alleles,greater understanding of embryo,preserve endangered,cloned not as healthy,worry about human cloning
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What is natural selection?
diff within same species,survival of fittest, charles darwin, AGAINST=against religion,couldnt explain genes/mutation,not enough evidence
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What did Lamarck think?
if characteristic used lots it became more developed + passed on
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What is evolutionary?
how living things are related, similar characteristics + genes = common ancestor/close related
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What is ecological?
how interact with eachother, same environment+similar characteristics=in competition, diff in same environment show predator - prey relationships
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What are carbs used for?
by body for energy
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What are protein used for?
build+repair cells - LACK= wasting of body tissue
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What are fats used for?
store of energy
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What are vitamins used for?
cells work properly
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What are iron used for?
make haemoglobin - LACK = anaemia
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What are calcium used for?
make teeth and bones - LACK=weak bones and teeth
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What are sodium used for?
proper function of nerves
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What are flouride used for?
harden tooth enamel
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What are water used for?
chemical reactions/transport
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What are fibre used for?
digestive system flow smoothly
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What is athritis?
weaken of joints prevent movement, cause=excessive weight on joints
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What is heart disease?
angina,heart failure,heart attacks, blocked coronary arteries with fatty deposits
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What is high blood pressure?
blood strong press against artery walls as pumps, cause=overweight, not enough fruit and veg, too much salt
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What is diabetes?
body cant maintain normal blood glucose level, cause of type 2=body not produce enough insulin or cells dont react to it
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What is chloesterol?
found in every cell, type fat made by liver, HDL=good, LDL=bad
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What is bacteria?
single celled organism, many are harmless/useful, some cause disease= split in 2>produce toxins>directly damage cells>reproduce every 20mins
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What is a virus?
smaller than bacteria, cause disease in every type of cell=take over cells>reproduce>damage and destroy cells/inject dna into cell>multiplies>cell burst release virus
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the body's second line of defence?


Phagocytes carry out phagocytosis where surrounds, engulfs, digests microbe using enzyme. The components gotten rid of or used by WBC

Card 3


Whats the body's third line of defence?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What do antibiotics kill?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who discovered penecillin?


Preview of the front of card 5
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Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin, not Andrew Fleming!

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