Biological Molecules

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Name 3 monosaccharides.
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose.
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What is a monosaccharide?
A single sugar unit.
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Name a disaccharide.
Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose.
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What does organic mean?
Contains carbon.
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What is the general formula for monosaccharides?
(CH2O)n
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What is the difference between alpha and beta glucose?
They are structural isomers, they have the same formula but a different structure. Alpha glucose has H and OH and beta glucose has OH then H. (The ends are reversed).
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Glucose + glucose =
Maltose.
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What 2 monosaccharides is sucrose made from?
Glucose + fructose.
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What is lactose made form?
Glucose and galactose.
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What is a condensation reaction?
The joining together of 2 monomers to form a larger molecule, removing water in the process.
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What is a glycosidic bond?
The bond formed when monosaccharides join by condensation.
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Define a hydrolysis reaction.
The break down of large molecules into smaller ones by the addition of water.
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How are polysaccharides broken down into disaccharides or monosacharides?
By hydrolysis (the addition of water).
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What monosaccharide is starch made of?
Alpha glucose.
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Is starch found in plants or animals?
Plants
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Why is starch a good storage molecule?
Its monomers coil to form a helix structure which makes the chain compant so lots of it can fit in a cell.
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What function does a branching structure provide and why?
Used to produce energy because it has a larger surface area so more enzymes can hydrolyse it to for glucose.
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What is the difference between amylose and amylopectin?
Amylose is a straight chain and amylopectin is a branched structure.
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Which polysaccharide is found in animals: glycogen, cellulose or starch?
Glycogen.
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What structure does glycogen have?
Branched structure of alpha glucose.
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Where is glycogen stored?
Muscles and in the liver.
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Describe the structure of cellulose.
Chains of beta glucose joined together by glycosidic bonds. Each beta glucose is is rotated 180 degrees to its neighbour. This forms a straight chain, each joined by hydrogen bonds.
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How is cellulose used for support in plants?
The grouped chains form microfibrils which provide rigidity which keeps the plant turgid.
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What are the functions of lipids?
Source of energy, Protection around organs, Insulation, Cell membranes.
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What are lipids soluble and insoluble in?
Soluble in organic solvents (alcohols/acetone). Insoluble in water.
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What are tryglyceries made of?
3 fatty acid chains, 1 glycerol molecule and easter bonds.
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What is glycerol?
Alcohol.
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What is an ester bond?
A bond formed between the OH of a fatty acid and H from a glycerol as a result of a condensation reaction.
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How do triglycerides provide energy?
The hydrocarbon tails contain lots of chemical energy in the C-H bonds. When these bonds break lots of energy is released.
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What is a mono-unsaturated fatty acid?
A fatty acid with only one carbon carbon double bond?
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What is the difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipid?
A triglyceride has 3 fatty acid chains but a phospholipid has 2 fatty acid chains and one phosphate group.
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Which part of a phospholipid is hydrophilic?
The phosphate head is attracted to water.
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What is the function of a phospholipid?
They controls what enters and leaves a cell.
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What are proteins made of?
Amino acid monomers.
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Describe the structure of an amino acid.
Has an amino group (NH2), a variable group (Rgroup) and a carboxyl group (COOH) all joined by a central carbon atom attached to a hydrogen.
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What bond is formed when two amino acids join by condensation?
Peptide bond.
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Where is a peptide bond formed?
Between the OH from the carboxyl group and the H from the amino group of another amino acid.
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What does the primary structure of a protein determine?
The shape and function of a protein.
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What does a change in a single amino acid mean?
It changes the shape of the protein and therefor the function aswell.
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How does a polypeptide chain twist into a helix?
Hydrogen bonds form between the positive and negative charges of the amino acids.
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How is the structure of a protein maintained?
By disulfide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds.
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How do enzymes have a specific shape?
Due to the amino acid sequence.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a monosaccharide?

Back

A single sugar unit.

Card 3

Front

Name a disaccharide.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does organic mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the general formula for monosaccharides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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