Biological Molecules

What is a polymer?
A large,complex molecule composed of many monomers joined together.
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What is a monomer?
A small, basic molecular unit that can form a polymer.
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Give 2 examples of a monomer.
Amino acids, Nucleotides, Monosaccharides
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What happens in a condensation reaction between 2 monomers?
A chemical bond is formed between the monomers and a molecule of water is released.
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What type of reaction involves the breakage of a chemical bond between 2 monomers using water?
A hydrolysis reaction.
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What type of bond forms between 2 monosaccharides?
A glycosidic bond.
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What molecule is released during a condensation reaction?
A water molecule.
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What is a positive test for reducing and non-reducing sugars?
Use benedicts solution- a green, orange, yellow or brick red precipitate.
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Name the monomer that makes up polysaccharides.
Monosaccharides.
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What is the main energy storage material in plants and animals?
Starch
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`Is starch soluble or insoluble?
Insoluble
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Why is starch good for storage?
It is insoluble so does not affect water potential. Water cannot enter the cell via osmosis.
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Which polysaccharide is a mojor component of plant cell walls?
Cellulose.
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Positive test for starch.
Use iodine, positive result= dark blue/black sample.
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What are the components of a triglyceride?
A molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.
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What is the difference between an unsaturated and a saturated fatty acid?
A saturated fatty acid has a single bond between the carbon atoms whereas an unsaturate fatty acid has a double bond between the carbon atoms.
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What is an emulsion test used to test for?
Lipids.
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How is the structure of a triglyceride suitable for the bilayer of cell membranes?
Hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head makes the centre of the membrane hydrophobic. Water soluble substances cannot easily pass through.
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What are the monomers of proteins?
Amino acids.
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What is a polypeptide?
A chain of more than one amino acids joined together.
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What sort of reaction links amino acids together?
Condensation.
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What is the name of the bond that forms between amino acids?
Peptide bond.
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Name the 3 bonds formed in a proteins tertiary structure.
Hydrogen, ionic and disulfide bonds.
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What is the function of DNA?
Store genetic information.
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What are ribosomes made up of?
RNA and proteins.
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Name the monomer of DNA and RNA.
Nucleotides.
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Describe the structure of a DNA nucleotide.
A phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogen base (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine)
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What are the 4 types of DNA base?
Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine.
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What type of bonds hold the nucleotides of different strands of DNA together?
Hydrogen bonds.
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Name the type of pentose sugar present in RNA.
Ribose sugar.
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Name the 4 RNA bases.
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil.
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Name the 2 enzymes involved in DNA replication.
DNA helicase and DNA polymerase.
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What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate.
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Describe the structure of ATP.
A molecule of adenine, ribose sugar and 3 phosphate groups.
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What is ATP broken down into?
ADP and p!
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What enzyme catalyses the breakdown of ATP?
ATP hydrolase.
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What is an inorganic ion?
An ion that does not contain carbon.
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Where do inorganic ions occur?
In the cytoplasm of cells and body fluids of organisms.
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What determines an ions specific role?
Its specific properties
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What ions are present in a haemoglobin molecule?
Iron ions.
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What is the role of these ions?
They bind to oxygen.
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Name the ion linked to pH.
Hydrogen ions (H+)
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Which ion is involved in moving glucose and amino acids across the cell membrane?
Sodium ions (Na+)
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What is the name of this process (link to previous question)
Co-transport/ Co- transportation
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Name 2 reactions that water is involved in.
1) condensation 2) hydrolysis.
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Why is water classed as a polar molecule?
It has a slight positive charge on one side and slightly negative charge on the other.
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What is a hydrogen bond?
A weak bond between a slightly positively charged hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negatively charged atom in another molecule.
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What is a metabolite?
A substance involved in a metabolic reaction.
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What makes water useful as a solvent?
Its polarity.
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Water has a high latent heat of vaporisation. What does this mean?
Loss of heat is used to change it from a liquid to a gas.
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Explain why water has a high specific heat capacity.
When water is heated, a lot of heat energy is used to break the hydrogen bonds between water molecules. This means there is less heat energy available to increase the temperature of water.
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What is cohesion?
The attraction between two molecules of the same type.
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Why is cohesion between water molecules in plants important?
Strong cohesion between water molecules allows water to travel in columns in the xylem tissue inside plants.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a monomer?

Back

A small, basic molecular unit that can form a polymer.

Card 3

Front

Give 2 examples of a monomer.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in a condensation reaction between 2 monomers?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of reaction involves the breakage of a chemical bond between 2 monomers using water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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