The Biological Approach to Addiction

Some psychologists from the biological approach to explanations for addiction!

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Vink et al (2005)
Studied 1572 Dutch twin pairs. Found that (for both males and females) individual differences in smoking initiation were explained by genetic (44%) and environmental (56%) factors
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Xian et al (2003)
Twin study, found that 54% of the risk of failure in quitting can be attributed to heritability
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Buka et al (2003)
1248 women aged 17 to 39 (in the years 1959 and 1966). Children of women that smoked at least 20 cigarettes a day DURING PREGNANCY were more likely to become addicted to smoking than those whose mothers smoked fewer than 20 a day
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Paris et al (2010)
Measured cortisol levels before and after a video showing a person's preferred mode of gambling, and a neutral video. Recreational gamblers = significant increase in salivary cortisol after both videos. Pathological gamblers = no cortisol change afte
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Black et al (2006)
Found first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer pathological gambling than more distant relatives
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Zuckerman (1979)
Claimed individual differences in need for stimulation. Sensation seekers looked for novel experiences, and high sensation seekers have a lower appreciation of risk than low sensation seekers. This makes them more likely to gamble
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Breen and Zimmermann (2001)
People hooked on video gambling became compulsive gamblers within a year. In other forms (such as betting on horses) it usually took more than 3.5 years before they were at risk of developing an addiction.
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Thorgeirsson et al (2008)
Found gene variant on chromosome 15 that influenced no. cigarettes smoked per day, nicotine dependence, and risk of smoking related diseases. People that smoked less than 10 cigarettes a day were unlikely to have this gene variant.
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Gartner et al (2009)
Suggests that genetic susceptibility screening for smoking is unlikely to be successful given the relatively small associations between genes and smoking
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Twin study, found that 54% of the risk of failure in quitting can be attributed to heritability

Back

Xian et al (2003)

Card 3

Front

1248 women aged 17 to 39 (in the years 1959 and 1966). Children of women that smoked at least 20 cigarettes a day DURING PREGNANCY were more likely to become addicted to smoking than those whose mothers smoked fewer than 20 a day

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Measured cortisol levels before and after a video showing a person's preferred mode of gambling, and a neutral video. Recreational gamblers = significant increase in salivary cortisol after both videos. Pathological gamblers = no cortisol change afte

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Found first-degree relatives of pathological gamblers were more likely to suffer pathological gambling than more distant relatives

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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