Benefits of Relationships

HideShow resource information
Bowlby's Attachment Theory
quality of early bond between primary caregiver and infant sets a template for future relationships, primary caregiver (mother) who is sensitive & reliable creates a securely attached child, less likely to depend on partners for emotional needs
1 of 16
Continuity Hypothesis (Hazan & Shaver)
a continuity from infant to adult relationships, love quiz, secure=beliefs(enduring)&mutual trust, insecure=fall out of love, 'rare', benefits of close caring relationship with primary caregiver as an infant
2 of 16
Good social relationships & Risk of mental health issues (Kamark et al)
Link between high stress, low social support & mental ill health, stressful tasks, assessed psychological reactions, some with friend, some alone, friend=lower psychological responses (i.e stress)
3 of 16
Direct Effect Hypothesis
psychological well-being is correlated with social support, because our relationships with friends/partners are rewarding, boosting self-esteem regardless of whether or not we are stressed, absence of social support is stressful=ill health
4 of 16
Buffering Hypothesis
Suggests a reason why psychological well-being is correlated with social support, protection from negative effects of stress(vaccination) people with strong relationships (romantic or not) call upon social support when necessary, reducing buffering
5 of 16
Schwarzer & Leppin
meta-analysis of 70 studies, -0.22 correlation between social support and depression, SUPPORTS, individuals with the most support least likely to be depressed
6 of 16
Argyle & Henderson
divorced/separated individuals are more likely to suffer from mental ill health or commit suicide than those still married, greater for men, suggests relationships help maintain mental health, supporting buffering hypothesis.
7 of 16
Holmes & Rahe
Relationships themselves cause stress, Social Readjustment Scale, several stressful life changing events, death of spouse, divorce, marriage, buffering hypothesis does not consider negative effects of relationships
8 of 16
Correlational Evidence
Weakness, link between poor social relationships and mental ill health, but impossible to attribute causation, e.g. may be people suffering from mental ill health that find close supportive relationships difficult to develop/maintain.
9 of 16
Self-Esteem
The evaluation you have of yourself, whether you think highly of yourself or not, high self-esteem associated with success at school, work, etc.social support = source of self-esteem
10 of 16
Krause
retired participants aged 65-95, increased social support led to decrease in depression, mainly due to the influence of emotional support=effect on feelings of self-worth & informational support, emphasises importance of social support in the elderly
11 of 16
Criticisms
Sample only consisted of elderly retired people, hard to generalise findings to young people who have different lifestyles.
12 of 16
Bradburn
SUPPORT, USA, asked married, divorced & single people about general happiness levels, marriage=higher happiness for men & women, rating happier than those who weren't married.
13 of 16
Limitations
USA, 1969, marriage was still the norm, living together outside marriage=outrageous. Demand characteristics, effecting responses,single people aspired to be married
14 of 16
Revenson et al
Patients who reported that social support was problematic (e.g. relationships) had higher rates of depression, CONTRADICTS idea of relationships boosting self-esteem, as not all relationships provide beneficial support.
15 of 16
General Evaluation
Major barrier between relationship research & well-being is that social support is difficult to measure, e.g. is having few close friends/family damaging to social support? Every relationship is different, hard to generalise to individuals.
16 of 16

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a continuity from infant to adult relationships, love quiz, secure=beliefs(enduring)&mutual trust, insecure=fall out of love, 'rare', benefits of close caring relationship with primary caregiver as an infant

Back

Continuity Hypothesis (Hazan & Shaver)

Card 3

Front

Link between high stress, low social support & mental ill health, stressful tasks, assessed psychological reactions, some with friend, some alone, friend=lower psychological responses (i.e stress)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

psychological well-being is correlated with social support, because our relationships with friends/partners are rewarding, boosting self-esteem regardless of whether or not we are stressed, absence of social support is stressful=ill health

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Suggests a reason why psychological well-being is correlated with social support, protection from negative effects of stress(vaccination) people with strong relationships (romantic or not) call upon social support when necessary, reducing buffering

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Relationships resources »