Baddeley (1966)

What was the aim of Baddely (1966)?
To investigate whether acoustically similar words in the LTM would lead to more memory impairment than semantically similar words in LTM
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In experiment 1 how many participants were in each list?
List A: 18, List B: 17, List C 20, List D: 20
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What condition (in experiment 1) was list A?
Acoustically similar words
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What condition (in experiment 1) was list B?
Acoustically dissimilar words.
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What condition (in experiment 1) was list C?
Semantically similar words.
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What condition (in experiment 1) was list D?
Semantically dissimilar words.
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What does acoustically similar mean?
Similar sounding words
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What does semantically similar mean?
Words with similar meanings.
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What was the procedure for acoustically similar/dissimilar words (List A and B)?
They had to listen to a list of acoustically similar/dissimilar words and put them in order. They had a 20 minute distraction then had a retest.
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What wa the results of the acoustically similar/dissimilar words (List A and B)?
List A participants learned less words than B initially, then, once they were in the memory, they remembered more. B learnt more than A initially, but then forgot more easily.
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What was the procedure for Semantically similar/dissimilar words (List C and D)?
They listened too the words then had to order them. They had a 20 minute distraction then a retest.
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What were the results for Semantically similar/dissimilar words (List C and D)?
Both forgot most of the words overall, whether they were semantically similar or not made no difference.
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Why did Badeley do a second experiment?
Because he thought ppts were using STM for the list. It was done to block out the use of STM.
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What was the aim of Experiment 2?
To include an interference task .
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What lists were used in Experiment 2?
List A (acoustically similar words) and List C (Semantically similar words)
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In the two conditions, how many further conditions were there?
3: X, Y and Z
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What was condition X?
One set had List A, one had C, both cases of learning were the same as experiment 1.
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What was condition Y?
One set had List A, the othe r had List C. Learning was the same as Experiment 1, but there was an interference task between word presentation and recall.
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What was condition Z?
One set had List A the other had List B, but there was an interference task between recall and the nect presentation of the words.
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What were the results of the acoustically similar words in experiment 2?
Conditions X and Y had no forgetting. Z had significant forgetting. No differences other than this.
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What were the results for semantically similar words in experiment 2?
Recall was worse in condition Y, there was no forgetting. Condition X did better than Y. Condition X shows significant forgetting at the retest. There was significant forgetting from X and Z.
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What lists were used in Experiment 3?
List A, List B, List C and List D
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Which further condition from Experiment 2 was used to block the STM?
Condition Y
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How were the words presented in Experiment 3?
Visually.
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What were the results for acoustically similar words in Experiment 3?
No significant difference between A and B, retest not significantly different for either condition.
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What were the results for semantically similar words in Experiment 3?
Semantically similar words (List C), worse recall than (List D) control.
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What overall conclusions was Baddeley able to make?
LTM is different to STM. Information difficult to recall from STM is not necessarily difficult to recall from LTM.
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What are 3 strengths of Baddeley (1966)?
Uses experimental and control conditions, extraneous variables are controlled. E.g. using the same interference tasks. Study is built on others, links well so strengthens results and increases reliability. Reliable, repeated some conditions.
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What is a weakness of Baddeley (1966)?
Uses stimulus materials, not naturalistic so lacking ecological validity.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In experiment 1 how many participants were in each list?

Back

List A: 18, List B: 17, List C 20, List D: 20

Card 3

Front

What condition (in experiment 1) was list A?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What condition (in experiment 1) was list B?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What condition (in experiment 1) was list C?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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