B5c: Running Repairs

Our heart and circulation can go wrong. We need to understand how our lifestyle can cause this. We also need to know how these faults can be detected and how they can be put right using modern surgical techniques. This item allows discussion on some of the decisions and ethical issues around blood donation. 

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Name five heart problems and diseases.
Hole in the heart, irregular heart beat, damaged or weak valves, coronary heart disease and heart attacks.
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Why might a blood transfusion be needed?(2)
A blood transfusion may be needed in a medical emergency or during an operation.
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What are the four different blood groups? What can each of these groups then be sub-divided into?
A, B, AB, O - then into Rhesus positive or Rhesus negative.
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Why is it important that blood clots when a cut occurs?
if it doesn't, a cut or similar injury could lead to dangerous blood loss.
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Where can a blood clot abnormally appear?
Inside blood vessels.
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What can anti-coagulant drugs be used for?
to reduce blood clotting
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What are the three consequences of having a hole in the heart?
Blood can move directly from one side of the heart to the other side of the heart, there's less oxygen in the blood and it may require correction from a surgeon.
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What are the two consequences of having damaged or weak valves?
Can require replacement by artificial valves, and reduces the effectiveness of blood circulation.
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What are the two consequences of having a blocked coronary artery?
Reduces blood flow to the heart muscle and can require bypass surgery.
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There are heart transplants, but what is the other device than can be used?
A heart assist device.
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How does a ‘hole in the heart’ result in less oxygen in the blood?
Because the gap in the wall separating either the two ventricles or atriums, allows blood to move from one side of the heart to the other, which means oxygenated and deoxygenated blood mixes.
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Why can unborn babies have a 'hole in the heart' and don't need a double circulatory system?
Unborn babies get the oxygen they need from their mother and do not need working lungs. They do not need a double circulatory system, and their heart has a hole between the right and left side.
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What happens when a baby is born?
The 'hole in the heart' closes soon after birth so that the double circulatory system can be established.
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How is a hole in the heart caused?
If once a baby is born, it's 'hole in the heart' doesn't close.
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What is the advantages of having a heart pacemaker (P) or artificial heart valves (V)over a heart transplant?
Heart transplant's a major op&there's a shortage of donors.Patient has to take drugs to suppress their immune system for the rest of life,otherwise the new heart'll be rejected.Less difficult ops involve fitting P&V,&the body's less likely 2 reject
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What is the disadvantage of having a heart pacemaker or artificial heart valves over a heart transplant?
they may need to be replaced during the lifetime of the patient.
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What is the process of blood donation?
When a donor gives blood their blood group is determined and blood is collected from a vein. It is mixed with an anti-coagulant to stop it clotting, and stored in a fridge.
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What is the process of blood transfusion?
When a patient requires a transfusion, their blood group is checked and matched with donor blood. The donor blood is warmed and put into the patient through a vein.
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What is haemophilia?
an inherited condition in which the blood does not easily clot.
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What three drugs are used to control blood clotting?
warfarin, heparin and aspirin
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Describe the process of blood clotting
Blood contains tiny structures called platelets, & a protein called fibrin. When a blood vessel is damaged, a series of chemical reactions happen. Fibrin fibres form a mesh at the site of the wound and the platelets get stuck in this, forming a scab
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What can unsuccessful blood transfusions cause?
Agglutination
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What is agglutination?
Blood Clumping
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What do red blood cells carry?
Antigens
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What are antigens?
substances that cause an immune response by the body and the production of antibodies.
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What are two major blood group antigens?
Antigen A and Antigen B
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Which blood group carries antigen A?
A and AB
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Which blood group carries antigen B?
B and AB
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What are Agglutinins?
Substances that can react with a particular antigen and cause agglutination
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What might blood plasma contain?
antibodies that can act as agglutinins with red blood cells
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Which blood group carries Anti A antibody?
B and O
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Which blood group carries anti B antibody?
A and O
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When will a blood transfusion fail?
A blood transfusion will fail if the recipient has antibodies that will agglutinate the red blood cells in the donated blood.
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Which blood group(s) can be a recipient to Blood Group A
A and AB
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Which blood group(s) can be a recipient to Blood Group B
B and AB
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Which blood group(s) can be a recipient to Blood Group AB
AB
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Which blood group(s) can be a recipient to Blood Group O
A, B, AB and O
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Can someone receive blood of their own blood group?
Yes
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What is special about blood group O?
someone with blood group O can donate to anyone, because their red blood cells do not carry A or B antigens - they are 'universal donors'
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What is special about blood group AB?
group AB patients can receive any type of blood, because they do not have anti-A or anti-B antibodies - they are 'universal recipients'
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Why might a blood transfusion be needed?(2)

Back

A blood transfusion may be needed in a medical emergency or during an operation.

Card 3

Front

What are the four different blood groups? What can each of these groups then be sub-divided into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why is it important that blood clots when a cut occurs?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where can a blood clot abnormally appear?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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