B4e: Transport in plants

The materials used in, and produced by, life processes in plants, move through plants in several ways. The suggested activities each provide the opportunity to plan a test of a scientific idea, analyse and interpret data using qualitative techniques, present information and draw a conclusion using scientific and technical conventions. Investigating factors affecting transpiration rate can include the use of ICT in teaching and learning and illustrates the use of models in explaining scientific phenomena. 

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How does water travel through a plant?
Absorbed from soil by root hairs, transported through plant, up stem to leaves, evaporation from leaves (transpiration).
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What four factors is the transpiration rate affected by?
Light, temperature, wind and humidity.
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What must healthy plants balance?
Water uptake and water loss.
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Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a dicotyledonous root.
Xylem and phloem in the centre of the root to withstand stretching forces.
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Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a stem.
Located around the outside to allow the stem to bend, phloem on the outside.
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Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a leaf.
Together to create a vascular bundle, and support the leaf.
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What is the function of the xylem?
Xylem vessels are involved in the movement of water through a plant from its roots to its leaves.
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What is the function of the phloem?
Phloem vessels are involved in translocation. This is the movement of food substances from the stems to growing tissues and storage tissues.
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The xylem and phloem form continuous systems where?
Roots, stems and leaves.
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Describe the structure of xylem vessels.
Thick strengthened cellulose cell wall with a hollow lumen (dead cells).
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Describe the structure of phloem vessels.
Columns of living cells.
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What is transpiration?
Evaporation.
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How does transpiration causes water to be moved up xylem vessels?
Water on the surface evaporates, then diffuse out the leaf. More water is drawn out of the xylem to replace what's lost. As the xylem makes a continuous tube from the leaf, down the stem to the roots, producing a flow of water and dissolved minerals
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Why does transpiration and water loss happen?
Because of the way that leaves are adapted for efficient photosynthesis.
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Increase in light intensity causes a(n) ______ in transpiration rate.
Increase.
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Increase in temperature causes a(n) ______ in transpiration rate.
Increase.
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Increase in air movement causes a(n) ______ in transpiration rate.
Increase.
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Decrease in humidity causes a(n) ______ in transpiration rate.
Increase.
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Why is transpiration increased by an increase in light intensity?
The stomata open wider to allow more carbon dioxide into the leaf for photosynthesis.
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Why is transpiration increased by an increase in temperature?
Evaporation and diffusion are faster at higher temperatures.
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Why is transpiration increased by an increase in air movement?
Water vapour is removed quickly by air movement, speeding up diffusion of more water vapour out of the leaf.
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Why is transpiration increased by a decrease in humidity?
Diffusion of water vapour out of the leaf speeds up if the leaf is surrounded by dry air.
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How do root hairs increase the ability of roots to take up water by osmosis?
Roots are covered in millions of long hairs, giving the plant a large surface area to volume ratio. The concentration of water in the roots is usually higher than in the plant, triggering osmosis.
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What four things does transpiration provide plants with water for?
Cooling, photosynthesis, support and movement of minerals.
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What two things are adapted to reduce excess water loss from the leaf? (structure)
Waxy cuticle, and small number of stomata on the upper epidermis.
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What two things are adapted to reduce excess water loss from the leaf? (cellular structure)
Guard cells and stomata.
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How are guard cells adapted?
Changes in guard cell turgidity (due to light intensity and availability of water) to regulate stomatal opening.
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How are stomata adapted?
By the number, position, size and distribution.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What four factors is the transpiration rate affected by?

Back

Light, temperature, wind and humidity.

Card 3

Front

What must healthy plants balance?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a dicotyledonous root.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Describe the arrangement of xylem and phloem in a stem.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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