Biology 2a

1. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Protista?
Single celled, have a nucleus, some have chloroplasts, no cell walls, organelles present. Photosynthesis or ingestion of other organisms. Move using a cilia or flagella.
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2. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Monera?
Single celled, no nucleus, no chloroplasts, have a cell wall. Absorb nutrients through cell wall, or produce their own. May or may not move.
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3. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Fungi?
Mulitcellular, have a nucleus, no chloroplasts, have a cell wall. Aquire nutrients from decaying material. No mechanisms for movements.
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4. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Plant?
Mulitcellular, have a nucleus, chlorplasts and a cell wall. Require sunlight to make food through photosynthesis. Dont move.
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5. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of an Animal?
Mulitcellular, have a nucleus, no chloroplasts, no cell walls. Acquire nutrients by ingestion. Move using a cilia, flagella or muscles.
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6. What are some of the problems of classifying organisms?
Soem organisms from different species can reproduce to make a hybrid. Hybrids are not fertile so cannot be called a new species. Those in a micro-organism can be difficult. Variety of life is a continuous spectrum. Reproduce asexually. Changing alway
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7. What can evolutionary relationships between organisms in the kingdoms be displayed as?
Evolutionary trees.
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8. Give a theory within the evolutionary trees.
Monera represent the earliest group. Monera to Protista, from which the other three Kingdoms evolved along.
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9. What are the five kingdoms seperated into? (Keep going along the sequence)
Phyla - Classes - Orders - Families - Genera - Species
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10. What is there always within species?
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11. What type of name is always given to a species? What is this called?
Two latin names. Binomial naming system.
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12. Explain what happens if you find closely related species on different continents?
They have evolved and adapted the the different conditions.
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13. Why do we expect similar species to be closely related to a common ancester?
Species inherit charactoristics.
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14. What does species classification take into account?
Evolutionary relationships as well as ecological relationships.
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15. How are organisms with similar charactoristics not all descended from a common ancestor?
They may have evolved to survive in the same environment so have developed similar structures.
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16. Give an example of this.
Whales, sharks and dolphins all look similar. But not from a common ancestor. Due to sharing a similar environment for millions of years.
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17. What is artificial classification?
Observed charactoristics. Eg. Beak.
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18. What is natural selection?
Natural relationships between organisms. More evidence - external and internal.
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19. What method helps us understand classification?
DNA sequencing.
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20. Organisms that are closely related have a ............ degree of DNA sequencing similarity.
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21. What can arthropods be divided into?
Crustacean, insect, arachnid, myriapod.
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22. What are arthropods?
Largest animal group. Limbs with joints allow to move, exoskeleton (shed).
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23. What do food chains show?
The transfer of energy from organism to organism.
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24. Why are green plants producers?
Produce biomass during photosynthesis.
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25. What are consumers?
Eat other organisms.
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26. What is a trophic level?
Position or stage that an organism occupies in a food chain, what it eats and what eats it.
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27. What is lost at every stage of the food chain? What processes loose it?
Matter and energy lost through faeces (egestion). Energy lost through movement and respiration, heat loss and excretion.
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28. What can excretory products be used for?
starting point to another food chain.
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29. What does the length of a food chain depend on?
The efficiency of energy transfer.
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30. Why do food chains rarely have a fourth or fifth degree consumer?
There isnt enough energy to supply another organism.
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31. What is the equation for energy efficiency?
Energy converted into biomass/ total energy taken in x 100
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32. What are food webs and explain them.
Link food chains to make food webs. If organisms are removed from or added to the web it will have a huge impact on other organisms.
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33. What is a pyramid of numbers?
Number of organisms at each stage of the food chain. Number decreases as you go up the group.
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34. Why is it possible to get some odd looking pyramids?
They dont take into account the biomass of the object. Eg. Lots of slugs eat one lettice.
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35. What are the problems with pyramids of numbers?
Some organisms might belong to more than one trophic level and measuring biomass is tricky.
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36. What are pyramids of biomass?
Dry mass of living material at each stage. ALWAYS pyramid shaped.
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37. What explains the shape of biomass pyramids?
The efficiency of energy transfer. Biomass is lost through the stages.
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38. Give some examples of recycling.
When plants and animals grow they take in elements from the soil. Die and decay - elements released back.
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39. Give two examples of recycles elements.
Carbon and nitrogen.
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40. Why does the recycling of materials in waterlogged or acidic soil takes longer?
Waterlogged soil lacks oxygen for decomposers. Acidic soil not the best pH for decomposers.
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41. Explain the key steps of the carbon cycle.
Removed by plants for photosynthesis. Plants and animals respire releasing it. Soil, bacteria and fungi (decomposers) feed on dead plants and animals causing them to break down. Releasing carbon dioxide by . Combustion also releases carbon dioxide.
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42. How is carbon recycled in the sea?
Marine organism shells made of carbonates. Shell drops to bottom when die. Volcanic eruptions heat the limestone and release carbon dioxide into the air. Ocean absorbs it because it sinks.
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43. What is nitrogen used for?
Production of proteins, needed for growth in plants and animals.
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44. Why cannot plants use nitrogen thats in the air?
It is so unreactive.
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45. Explain the nitrogen cycle.
Plants abosrb nitrates from the soil. Animals eat the plants and use the nitrogen to make animal protein. Feeding passes nitrogen compounds along the food chain. Dead animals and plants broken down, releasing nitrates back into the soil.
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46. What are nitrogen-fixing bacteria?
Convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrates in the soil. Some live in the soil, others in root nudules in certain plants.
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47. What are nitrifying bacteria?
Convert ammonium compounds into nitrates in the soil.
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48. What are denitrifying bacteria?
Convert ammonium compounds and nitrates in the soil into atmospheric nitrogen.
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49. What does lightning do?
Causes nitrogen and oxygen in the air to combine to form nitrogen oxides which dissolve in water.
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50. What do soil bacteria and fungi do ?
Convert proteins and urea into ammonia.
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51. What can the size and distribution of any population be affected by?
How well the organisms compete for limited resources.
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52. What do animals compete for?
Food, water, shelter and mates.
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53. What do plants compete for?
Water, light, and minerals.
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54. What will better adapted competitors be able to do and why?
Survive and produce offspring because they will get the most out of resources.
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55. What is interdependance?
Determines distribution and abundance.
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56. What is interspecific?
Individuals of different species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem.
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57. What is intraspecific?
Individuals from the same species competing for the same resource. This is more important as they have the exact same needs.
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58. What is an ecological niche?
A place and a function.
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59. What happens to the number of predator and prey?
They regualate eachother. The prey will always out number the predator. *Cyclical fluctuations* - Regulations?
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60. What are parasites?
Survive by living off other organisms. Cause harm to the host.
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61. What type of relationship is this?
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62. What are mutualistic relationships?
Two organisms in the relationship benefit.
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63. Give an example of a mutualistic relationship.
Oxpecker birds and buffalos.
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64. Explain the relationship of a leguminous plant and bacteria.
Bacteria take sugars to use in respiration. Also convert nitrogen into nitrates, which helps plant to survive in nitrogen-poor soils.
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2. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Monera?


Single celled, no nucleus, no chloroplasts, have a cell wall. Absorb nutrients through cell wall, or produce their own. May or may not move.

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3. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Fungi?


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4. What are the features, feeding methods and movements of a Plant?


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