B2 Entirety Probemas (by DG)

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What do most human cells contain?
A nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, and ribsomes.
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In a plant/agal cell, what is the permanent vacuole filled with?
Sap
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Why are plant cells different from animal cells?
They have different functions.
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What does the following control?: Nucleus
Controls the cells activities
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What does the following control?: Cytoplasm
Where many chemical reactions take place
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What does the following control?: Cell Membrane
Controls the movements of materials in and out of the cell
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What does the following control?: Mitochondria
Where energy is released during aerobic respiration.
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What does the following control?: Ribsomes
Where Protein syntheses takes place.
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What is Protein Syntheses?
The process by which amino acids are arranged into proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and various enzymes.
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What do Chloroplasts do?
Absorb light energy to make food for photosynthesis.
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What types of cells are bacteria much small than?
Plant and animal cells.
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What is Yeast in it's cell form?
A single celled organism; different from animal and plant cells.
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What is it called when multiple bacteria form together and what can this be seen by?
A bacteria colony which can be seen by the naked eye.
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If a cell has many of these, what must it need : Mitochondria
Needs lots of energy e.g. Muslce Cell, Sperm cell
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If a cell has many of these, what must it need : Ribsomes
It is making a lot of protein e.g.g Gland cells which produce enzymes.
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Cells with tails can what?
Move e.g. Sperm cells
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How can dissolved substances move inside and out of cells?
By Diffusion
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What causes Diffusion to occur more raplidly?
When theres a greater difference in concentration.
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What does glandular tissue produce?
Substances such as enzymes or hormones.
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What is a group of organs called?
A organ system.
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What are organs made up of?
Multiple tissue types
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Name 3 tissue types which organs are made up of:
Muscle tissue, glandular issue, and epilthelial tissue/
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What's the function of: Muscle tissue
Can contract to bring about movement.
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What's the function of: glandular tissue
Produces substances such as enzymes or hormones.
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What's the function of: Epithelial tissue
Covers some parts of the body
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What are the 3 plant tissues?
Epidermal tissue; meophyll and xylem/phloem tissue.
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What does the pancreas amd salivary glands produce?
Disgestive Juices
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What does the liver produce?
Bile
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What happens in the small intestine?
Absorbtion of soluble food occurs.
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What happens in the large intestine?
Where water is absorbed, alongside the undigested food which produces feaces.
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During photosynthesis, what energy is transferred into which?
During photosynthesis light energy is transferred into chemical energy.
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Chemical reaciton for photosynthesis:
Carbon dioxide + water -----------(light energy)------->>> glucose + oxygen
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What is released as a by product of photosynthesis?
Oxygen
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Where do plants grow best in?
Have enough light; CO2, water and are kept at a suitable temperature.
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What is a limiting factor in terms of photosynthesis?
Anything which puts a cap on the rate of photosynthesis/slows it down.
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What do plant and agal cells produce during photosynthesis?
Glucose
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What can glucose during photosynthesis be coverted into?
Insoluble starch for storage; used for respiration; or used to produce proteins or fats and oils for storage.
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What do plants and algae need to make proteins?
Nitrate ions (but mainly mineral ions; nitrate ions are a form/example of these)
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What 3 factors affect the rate of photosynthesis?
Temperature; light levels and CO2.
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What can plant growers artifically do to improve plant growth?
Make these conditions up: Temperature; light levels and CO2.
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What is the distribution of organisms affected by?
Tempature, nutrient supply, amount of light/water, availability of oxygen and Co2.
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What's a disadvantage to creating these conditions articially for photosynthesis?
Exspensive so they need to compare the biomass of plants grown indoors compared to those of that outdoors.
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What is a quadrat?
Metal square frame in a subdivided grid used to measure a random area.
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When using a quadrat and gathering data, what must the results be?
Reliable, repeateable and reproducable.
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What's a main important factor in using a quadrat?
Sample size
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What are proteins made from?
Long chains of amino acids.
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What are enzymes?
Proteins which act as biological catalysts.
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What can proteins be?
Structural components of tissue, hormones, antibodies, or enzymes.
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What can enzymes do in relation to Proteins, catalysts, and enzymes?
Build large molecules, change one molecule into another one (convert one type of sugar into another), and break down large molecules into smaller ones.
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What is enzyme activity affected by? (made by DG)
Tempature and pH. (made by DG)
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What tempature do enzymes work best/highest in rate of reaction?
37C-41C
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What could happen to an enzyme if the pH is too acidic or alkaline?
It could denature meaning it wont fit into it's active site.
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What is meant by the term "denatured" in terms of enzymes?
Where it changes shape to no longer fit into it's active site.
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What are digestive enzymes made from?
Glands in the disgestive system
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Where do digestive enzymes work?
Outside the body cells in the cavity of the digestive system.
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Where is Amylase produced?
The salivary glands, the pancreas and small intestine.
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What is the use of Amylase?
Catalyses the digestion of starch into sugars in the mouth and in the small intestine.
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Where is Protease produced?
The stomach, the pancreas and small intestine.
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What's the function of Protease?
Catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids in the stomach and small intestine.
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Where is Lipase produced?
Produced by the pancreas and the small intestine.
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What is Lipase's function?
Catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) to fatty acids and glycerol.
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What are lipids?
Fats and oils.
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What conditions do Amylase and Lipase work best in?
In the small intestine in slightly alkaline conditions.
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What conditions does Protease enzymes work best in?
Acidic condtions in the stomach.
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Where is Bile produced?
Liver
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Where is bile stored?
The Gall bladder.
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What's the function of bile?
Alkaline bile is squirted into the small intestine and neutralises the stomach acid.
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Where can enzymes be used outside the body?
In products in home and in industry.
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Where in household items are enzymes used?
Biological dettergents.
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Advantages of using enzymes in industry:
In biological washing powders their very good at removing stains, and can be used at low tempatures lowering energy use.
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Disadvantages of using enzymes in industry:
Can be costly to produce; may enter waterways via he sewage systems and denature at high tempatures which is needed for killing pathogens.
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What is aerobic respiration?
Release of energy from food when oxygen is available.
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Where do most aerobic reactions take place?
The mitochondria
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To supply energy to muslcles, what two resources must be sent to the muscles?
Glucose and oxygen.
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What happens when muscles over work and stop aerobic respiration?
They form an oxygen dept and then start the process of anaerobic respiration.
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Why do muscles use anaerobic respiration?
When they too fatigued and deprived of oxygen.
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What happens when muscles anaerobically respire?
Fatigue, build up oxygen dept, and build up lactic acid.
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What effect does lactic acid have on the muscles?
Causes fatigue and cramps
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In body cells, what are found in pairs?
Chromosomes
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Why do body cells need to divide?
To produce new body cells for growth.
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What is mitosis?
Type of cell division which produces identical new cells.
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What are gametes?
Sex cells
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Stem cells aren't specalised, but what can they do?
Can differentiate into different types of cells when needed.
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What makes up chromosomes?
Genes
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What are genes?
DNA which determines our characteristics (JC fat)
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Chromosomes are _________ molecules of ___?
Large molecules of DNA
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A gene is a small section of ___?
DNA
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What is sex of a child determined by?
The X and Y chromosomes which come from parents.
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What are different forms of a gene called?
Alleles
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What are the two types of alleles?
Dominant and recessive
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Name one disorder caused by a Dominant allele:
Polydactyly
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Name one disorder caused by a Recessive allele:
Cystic Fibrosis
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Why can't scientists be exact when life began on earth?
There's little repeatable or reproduce able evidence.
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What are fossils?
The remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock and preserved in petrified form.
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Name 3 factors which may cause a species to go excint
New diseases New predators - New, more successful competitors - Changes to the environment over geological time - such as a change in climate - A single catastrophic event
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In a plant/agal cell, what is the permanent vacuole filled with?

Back

Sap

Card 3

Front

Why are plant cells different from animal cells?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the following control?: Nucleus

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does the following control?: Cytoplasm

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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