B1d-f

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What is monocular vision?
Vision in one eye - it provides a wider field of view but a poor judgement of distance.
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What is binocular vision?
Vision in two eyes - it provides a narrower field of view but better judgement of distances.
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Where are light sensitive receptors found in the eye?
On the retina.
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What is accommodation?
The process of the eye focusing on near and distant objects.
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What is a reflex action?
A fast, automatic response to a stimulus.
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How is information carried around the nervous system?
Through electrical impulses.
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What is a synapse?
The space between two neurones.
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Name the 5 types of drugs.
Depressants, stimulants, performance enhancers, painkillers and hallucinogens.
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What is a drug?
A substance which changes the chemical processes within the body.
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What is the addictive drug in tobacco smoke?
Nicotine.
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What is one unit of alcohol equivalent to?
10ml of pure alcohol.
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What is alcohol?
A toxic substance that is broken down by the liver.
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Name two consequences of excessive alcohol intake.
Brain damage and cirrhosis of the liver.
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What type of drug is alcohol?
A depressant.
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What is homeostatis?
Maintaining a constant internal environment.
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What is the optimum body temperature for enzymes?
37 degrees.
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How is body temperature controlled?
The hypothalamus (in the brain) monitors the temperature of the blood.
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What organ controls blood glucose levels?
The pancreas.
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What is a hormone?
A chemical messenger which is transported in the blood.
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What happens when blood glucose levels get too high?
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas.
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What does insulin do?
It causes glucose to be taken up by the cells and turned into glycogen.
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What is diabetes?
A disease whereby individuals are unable to control the amount of sugar in their blood.
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Name the main parts of the eye and say what they do.
The cornea refracts light into the eye, the iris controls the size of the pupil, the lens focuses light onto the retina, receptors on the retina detect light and the optic nerve carries impulses to the brain.
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How does the eye change to focus on distant objects?
The ciliary muscle relaxes, so the suspensory ligaments pull tight. The lens becomes a less rounded shape so light is refracted less.
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How does the eye change to focus on close objects?
The ciliary muscle contracts so the suspensory ligaments slacken. The lens becomes a more rounded shape so light is refracted more.
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What causes people to be long-sighted?
When the eyeball is too short or the lens doesn't bend the light enough.
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What causes people to be short-sighted?
When the eyeball is too long or the lens bends the light too much.
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What lens corrects each type of problem?
Long-sighted = convex Short-sighted = concave
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Describe the path of a reflex arc.
1) The pain receptors are stimulated. 2) Message travels along sensory neurone. 3) Message is passed along relay neurone in CNS. 4) Message travels along motor neurone. 5) Taken to the effector - a response is triggered.
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Describe the nerve transmission across the synapse.
1) Electrical impulse triggers the release of neurotransmitters, which diffuse across the synapse. 2) These chemicals bind to receptor molecules on the second neurone.
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How does cigarette smoke affect the lungs?
Tar from cigarette smoke collects in the lungs. This is full of carcinogens which cause mutations and sometimes cancer.
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How does alcohol affect the liver?
When alcohol is broken down, some of the products are toxic. This can kill liver cells and cause scar tissue to form which stops blood reaching the liver. This is called cirrhosis.
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How does negative feedback work?
Changes in the environment trigger a response that counteracts that change.
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What are the consequences of high body temperature?
You can become dehydrated, leading to heat stroke which can be fatal.
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What are the consequences of low body temperature?
You can get hypothermia which can be fatal.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is binocular vision?

Back

Vision in two eyes - it provides a narrower field of view but better judgement of distances.

Card 3

Front

Where are light sensitive receptors found in the eye?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is accommodation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a reflex action?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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